1887

Abstract

Infection of cultured insect cells with multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) resulted in the generation of mutants with major genomic deletions. Some of the mutants lacked the ability to infect larvae . The gene(s) responsible for this phenotype in SeMNPV was mapped within a contiguous sequence encoding ORFs 29–35. In this paper we have shown that SeMNPV ORFs 15–35 (including genes encoding cathepsin, chitinase, GP37, PTPT-2, EGT, PKIP-1 and ARIF-1) are not essential for virus replication in cell culture or by intrahaemocoelic injection. By site-specific deletion mutagenesis of a full-length infectious clone of SeMNPV (bacmid) using ET recombination in , a series of SeMNPV bacmid mutants with increasing deletions in ORFs 15–35 was generated. Analyses of these mutants indicated that a deletion of SeMNPV ORF35 (Se35) resulted in loss of oral infectivity of polyhedral occlusion bodies. Reinsertion of ORF35 in SeMNPV bacmids lacking Se35 rescued oral infectivity. We propose the name for Se35 and its baculovirus homologues (e.g. MNPV ORF22), by analogy to a different gene recently characterized in NPV, which was designated infectivity factor (). Similar to the gene, which encodes an essential structural protein of the occlusion-derived virus envelope, and belong to a group of 30 genes that are conserved among the .

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.19133-0
2003-08-01
2021-03-07
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/84/8/vir842041.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.19133-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Ayres M. D., Howard S. C., Kuzio J., Lopez Ferber M., Possee R. D.. 1994; The complete DNA sequence of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Virology202:586–605
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Blissard G. W., Rohrmann G. F.. 1990; Baculovirus diversity and molecular biology. Annu Rev Entomol35:127–155
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Burand J. P.. 1998; Nudiviruses. In The Insect Viruses pp 69–90 Edited by Miller L. K., Ball L. A.. New York: Plenum Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Cheng C. H., Liu S. M., Chow T. Y., Hsiao Y. Y., Wang D. P., Huang J. J., Chen H. H.. 2002; Analysis of the complete genome sequence of the Hz-1 virus suggests that it is related to members of the Baculoviridae . J Virol76:9024–9034
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Cheng X., Krell P., Arif B.. 2001; P34.8 (GP37) is not essential for baculovirus replication. J Gen Virol82:299–305
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Dai X. J., Hajos J. P., Joosten N. N., van Oers M. M., IJkel W. F. J., Zuidema D., Pang Y., Vlak J. M.. 2000; Isolation of a Spodoptera exigua baculovirus recombinant with a 10·6 kbp genome deletion that retains biological activity. J Gen Virol10:2545–2554
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Dreschers S., Roncarati R., Knebel-Mörsdorf D.. 2001; Actin rearrangement-inducing factor of baculoviruses is tyrosine phosphorylated and colocalizes to F-actin at the plasma membrane. J Virol75:3771–3778
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Emanuelsson O., Nielsen H., Brunak S., von Heijne G.. 2000; Predicting subcellular localization of proteins based on their N-terminal amino acid sequence. J Mol Biol300:1005–1016
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Fan X., McLachlin J. R., Weaver R. F.. 1998; Identification and characterization of a protein kinase-interacting protein encoded by the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Virology240:175–182
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Friesen P. D.. 1997; Regulation of baculovirus early gene expression. In The Baculoviruses pp 141–170 Edited by Miller L. K.. New York: Plenum Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Funk C. J., Braunagel S. C., Rohrmann G. F.. 1997; Baculovirus structure. In The Baculoviruses pp 7–32 Edited by Miller L. K.. New York: Plenum Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Gelernter W. D., Federici B. A.. 1986; Isolation, identification, and determination of virulence of a nuclear polyhedrosis virus from the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Environ Entomol15:240–245
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Hara K., Funakoshi M., Kawarabata T.. 1995; A cloned cell line of Spodoptera exigua has a highly increased susceptibility to the Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Can J Microbiol41:1111–1116
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Hawtin R. E., Zarkowska T., Arnold K., Thomas C. J., Gooday G. W., King L. A., Kuzio J. A., Possee R. D.. 1997; Liquefaction of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus-infected insects is dependent on the integrity of virus-encoded chitinase and cathepsin genes. Virology238:243–253
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Heldens J. G., van Strien E. A., Feldmann A. M., Kulcsar P., Muñoz D., Leisy D. J., Zuidema D., Goldbach R. W., Vlak J. M.. 1996; Spodoptera exigua multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus deletion mutants generated in cell culture lack virulence in vivo . J Gen Virol77:3127–3134
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Herniou E. A., Luque T., Chen X., Vlak J. M., Winstanley D., Cory J. S., O'Reilly D. R.. 2001; Use of whole genome sequence data to infer baculovirus phylogeny. J Virol75:8117–8126
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Herniou E. A., Olszewski J. A., Cory J. S., O'Reilly D. R.. 2003; The genome sequence and evolution of baculoviruses. Annu Rev Entomol48:211–234
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Hofmann K., Stoffel W.. 1993; TMbase – a database of membrane spanning protein segments. Biol Chem Hoppe Seyler374:166
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Hong T., Summers M. D., Braunagel S. C.. 1997; N-terminal sequences from Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus envelope proteins ODV-E66 and ODV-E25 are sufficient to direct reporter proteins to the nuclear envelope, intranuclear microvesicles and the envelope of occlusion derived virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A94:4050–4055
    [Google Scholar]
  20. IJkel W. F., van Strien E. A., Heldens J. G., Broer R., Zuidema D., Goldbach R. W., Vlak J. M.. 1999; Sequence and organization of the Spodoptera exigua multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus genome. J Gen Virol80:3289–3304
    [Google Scholar]
  21. IJkel W. F., Westenberg M., Goldbach R. W., Blissard G. W., Vlak J. M., Zuidema D.. 2000; A novel baculovirus envelope fusion protein with a proprotein convertase cleavage site. Virology275:30–41
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Kikhno I., Gutierrez S., Croizier L., Croizier G., Ferber M. L.. 2002; Characterization of pif , a gene required for the per os infectivity of Spodoptera littoralis nucleopolyhedrovirus. J Gen Virol83:3013–3022
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Kuzio J., Jaques R., Faulkner P.. 1989; Identification of p74, a gene essential for virulence of baculovirus occlusion bodies. Virology173:759–763
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Li Y., Miller L. K.. 1995; Properties of a baculovirus mutant defective in the protein phosphatase gene. J Virol69:4533–4537
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Lu A., Miller L. K.. 1997; Regulation of baculovirus late and very late gene expression. In The Baculoviruses pp 193–216 Edited by Miller L. K.. New York: Plenum Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Luckow V. A., Lee S. C., Barry G. F., Olins P. O.. 1993; Efficient generation of infectious recombinant baculoviruses by site-specific transposon-mediated insertion of foreign genes into a baculovirus genome propagated in Escherichia coli . J Virol67:4566–4579
    [Google Scholar]
  27. McLachlin J. R., Yang S., Miller L. K.. 1998; A baculovirus mutant defective in PKIP, a protein which interacts with a virus-encoded protein kinase. Virology246:379–391
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Munoz D., Castillejo J. I., Caballero P.. 1998; Naturally occurring deletion mutants are parasitic genotypes in a wild-type nucleopolyhedrovirus population of Spodoptera exigua . Appl Environ Microbiol64:4372–4377
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Muyrers J. P., Zhang Y., Testa G., Stewart A. F.. 1999; Rapid modification of bacterial artificial chromosomes by ET-recombination. Nucleic Acids Res27:1555–1557
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Nielsen H., Engelbrecht J., Brunak S., von Heijne G.. 1997; Identification of prokaryotic and eukaryotic signal peptides and prediction of their cleavage sites. Protein Eng10:1–6
    [Google Scholar]
  31. O'Reilly D. R., Miller L. K.. 1990; Regulation of expression of a baculovirus ecdysteroid UDPglucosyltransferase gene. J Virol64:1321–1328
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Pijlman G. P., Dortmans J. C. F. M., Vermeesch A. M. G., Yang K., Martens D. E., Goldbach R. W., Vlak J. M.. 2002; Pivotal role of the non- hr origin of DNA replication in the genesis of defective interfering baculoviruses. J Virol76:5605–5611
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Sambrook J., Fritsch E. F., Maniatis T.. 1989; Molecular Cloning: a Laboratory Manual , 2nd edn. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Shizuya H., Birren B., Kim U. J., Mancino V., Slepak T., Tachiiri Y., Simon M.. 1992; Cloning and stable maintenance of 300-kilobase-pair fragments of human DNA in Escherichia coli using an F-factor-based vector. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A89:8794–8797
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Slack J. M., Dougherty E. M., Lawrence S. D.. 2001; A study of the Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ODV envelope protein p74 using a GFP tag. J Gen Virol82:2279–2287
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Smits P. H., Vlak J. M.. 1988; Biological activity of Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus against S. exigua larvae. J Invertebr Pathol51:107–114
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Thompson J. D., Gibson T. J., Plewniak F., Jeanmougin F., Higgins D. G.. 1997; The clustal_x windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Res25:4876–4882
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Van Strien E. A., Jansen B. J., Mans R. M., Zuidema D., Vlak J. M.. 1996; Sequence and transcriptional analysis of the ubiquitin gene cluster in the genome of Spodoptera exigua nucleopolyhedrovirus. J Gen Virol77:2311–2319
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Vlak J. M.. 1979; The proteins of nonoccluded Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus produced in an established cell line of Spodoptera frugiperda . J Invertebr Pathol34:110–118
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.19133-0
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.19133-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error