1887

Abstract

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a virtually ubiquitous human pathogen that, following cutaneous infection, latently infects neurons of sensory ganglia. Satellite cells (SCs) ensheath and provide metabolic support for these neurons, and could potentially participate in controlling HSV disease. Although SCs are restrictive for HSV replication, hypercellularity of non-neuronal cells in ganglia is prominent during HSV infection in animal models. SCs proliferate in response to trauma, e.g. nerve cut or crush, but it is not known if proliferation occurs in response to viral infection. To address this issue, cell proliferation, measured by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) uptake, and immune infiltrate, measured by CD45 labelling, were examined during acute infection in a mouse model. Because SCs do not express CD45, the BrdU CD45 cell subset represents the proliferating SC population. We report that during acute ganglionic HSV infection there is a substantial increase in SC numbers. We suggest that SC proliferation in response to HSV infection may occur in order to facilitate neuronal survival.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.19035-0
2003-05-01
2019-12-15
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/84/5/vir841079.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.19035-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Bechmann, I. & Nitsch, R. ( 1997; ). Astrocytes and microglial cells incorporate degenerating fibres following entorhinal lesion: a light, confocal and electron microscopical study using a phagocytosis-dependent labeling technique. Glia 20, 145–154.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Beckstead, J. ( 1994; ). A simple technique for preservation of fixation-sensitive antigens in paraffin-embedded tissues. J Histochem Cytochem 42, 1127–1134.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bick, M. D. & Davidson, R. L. ( 1974; ). Total substitution of bromodeoxyuridine for thymidine in the DNA of a bromodeoxyuridine-dependent cell line. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 71, 2082–2086.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bradley, J., Parr, E. & Sharkey, K. ( 1997; ). Effects of inflammation on cell proliferation in the myenteric plexus of the guinea-pig ileum. Cell Tissue Res 289, 455–461.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Cecchini, T., Ferri, P., Ciaroni, S., Cuppini, R., Ambrogini, P., Papa, S. & Del Grande, P. ( 1999; ). Postnatal proliferation of DRG non-neuronal cells in vitamin E-deficient rats. Anat Rec 256, 109–115.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Cook, M. L. & Stevens, J. G. ( 1973; ). Pathogenesis of herpetic neuritis and ganglionitis in mice: evidence for intra-axonal transport of infection. Infect Immun 7, 272–288.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Dillard, S. H., Cheatham, W. J. & Moses, H. L. ( 1972; ). Electron microscopy of zosteriform herpes simplex infection in the mouse. Lab Invest 26, 391–402.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Gratzner, H. ( 1982; ). Monoclonal antibody to 5-bromo- and 5-iododeoxyuridine: a new reagent for detection of DNA replication. Science 218, 474–476.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Graus, F., Campo, E., Cruz-Sanchez, F., Ribalta, T. & Palacin, A. ( 1990; ). Expression of lymphocyte, macrophage and class I and II major histocompatibility complex antigens in normal human dorsal root ganglia. J Neurol Sci 98, 203–211.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Hill, T. J., Field, H. J. & Roome, A. P. ( 1972; ). Intra-axonal location of herpes simplex virus particles. J Gen Virol 15, 233–235.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Johnson, G. D. & Araujo, G. M. D. C. N. ( 1981; ). A simple method of reducing the fading of immunofluorescence during microscopy. J Immunol Methods 43, 349–350.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Johnson, P., Maiti, A. & Ng, D. H. W. ( 1997; ). CD45: a family of leukocyte-specific cell surfce glycoproteins. In Weir's Handbook of Experimental Immunology, 5th edn, vol. II, pp. 62.1–62.16. Edited by L. A. Herzenberg, D. M. Weir & C. Blackwell. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Science.
  13. Ledbetter, J. A. & Herzenberg, L. A. ( 1979; ). Xenogeneic monoclonal antibodies to mouse lymphoid differentiation antigens. Immunol Rev 47, 63–90.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Lieberman, A. R. ( 1976; ). Sensory ganglia. In The Peripheral Nerve, pp. 188–278. Edited by D. N. Landon. London: Chapman & Hall.
  15. Lu, X. & Richardson, P. M. ( 1991; ). Inflammation near the nerve cell body enhances axonal regeneration. J Neurosci 11, 972–978.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Lu, X. & Richardson, P. M. ( 1993; ). Responses of macrophages in rat dorsal root ganglia following peripheral nerve injury. J Neurocytol 22, 334–341.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. McLean, I. & Nakane, P. ( 1974; ). Periodate–lysine–paraformaldehyde fixative. A new fixative for immunoelectron microscopy. J Histochem Cytochem 22, 1077–1083.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Monaco, S., Gehrmann, J., Raivich, G. & Kreutzberg, G. W. ( 1992; ). MHC-positive, ramified macrophages in the normal and injured rat peripheral nervous system. J Neurocytol 21, 623–634.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Nathaniel, E. J. H. & Nathaniel, D. R. ( 1973; ). Electron microscopic studies of spinal ganglion cells following crushing of dorsal roots in adult rat. J Ultrastruct Res 45, 168–182.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Pannese, E. ( 1960; ). Observations on the morphology, submicroscopic structure and biological properties of satellite cells (s.c.) in sensory ganglia of mammals. Z Zellforsch 52, 567–597.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Pannese, E. ( 1981; ). The satellite cells of the sensory ganglia. Adv Anat Embry Cell Bi 65, 1–111.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Roizman, B. & Knipe, D. ( 2001; ). Herpes simplex viruses and their replication. In Fields Virology, 4th edn, pp. 2399–2509. Edited by D. M. Knipe & P. M. Howley. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  23. Shimeld, C., Whiteland, J., Nicholls, S., Grinfeld, E., Easty, D., Gao, H. & Hill, T. ( 1995; ). Immune cell infiltration and persistance in the mouse trigeminal ganglion after infection of the cornea with herpes simplex virus type 1. J Neuroimmunol 61, 7–16.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Shinder, V., Govrin-lippmann, R., Cohen, S., Belenky, M., Ilin, P., Fried, K., Wilkinson, H. & Devor, M. ( 1999; ). Structural basis of sympathetic-sensory coupling in rat and human dorsal root ganglia following peripheral nerve injury. J Neurocytol 28, 743–761.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Simmons, A. & Nash, A. ( 1984; ). Zosteriform spread of herpes simplex virus as a model of recrudescence and it use to investigate the role of immune cells in prevention of recurrent disease. J Virol 52, 816–821.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Simmons, A. & Tscharke, D. C. ( 1992; ). Anti-CD8 impairs clearance of herpes simplex virus from the nervous system: implications for the fate of virally infected neurons. J Exp Med 175, 1337–1344.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Speck, P. G. & Simmons, A. ( 1991; ). Divergent molecular pathways of productive and latent infection with a virulent strain of herpes simplex virus type 1. J Virol 65, 4001–4005.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Speck, P. & Simmons, A. ( 1998; ). Precipitous clearance of herpes simplex virus antigens from the peripheral nervous systems of experimentally infected C57BL/10 mice. J Gen Virol 79, 561–564.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Stoll, G., Griffin, J. W., Li, C. Y. & Trapp, B. D. ( 1989; ). Wallerian degeneration in the peripheral nervous system: participation of both Schwann cells and macrophages in myelin degradation. J Neurocytol 18, 671–683.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Streit, W. J. ( 2002; ). Microglia as neuroprotective, immunocompetent cells of the CNS. Glia 40, 133–139.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Wen, J. Y., Morshead, C. M. & van der Kooy, D. ( 1994; ). Satellite cell proliferation in the adult rat trigeminal ganglion results from the release of a mitogenic protein from explanted sensory neurons. J Cell Biol 124, 1005–1015.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Wilkinson, R., Leaver, C., Simmons, A. & Pereira, R. A. ( 1999; ). Restricted replication of herpes simplex virus in satellite glial cell cultures clonally derived from adult mice. J Neurovirol 5, 384–391.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Zhou, X., Deng, Y., Chie, E., Xue, Q., Zhong, J., McLachlan, E. M., Rush, R. A. & Xian, C. J. ( 1999; ). Satellite-cell-derived nerve growth factor and neurotrophin-3 are involved in nonadrenergic sprouting in the dorsal root ganglia following peripheral nerve injury in the rat. Eur J Neurosci 11, 1711–1722.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.19035-0
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.19035-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error