1887

Abstract

A formerly undescribed virus has been isolated from the gills of farmed Atlantic salmon post-smolts in Norway suffering from gill disease. Cytopathic effects appeared in RTgill-W1 cells 9 weeks post-inoculation with gill tissue material. Virus production continued for an extended period thereafter. Light and electron microscopic examination revealed inclusions and replication in the cytoplasm. The viral nucleocapsid consisted of approximately 17 nm thick filaments in a herringbone pattern. Certain areas of the plasma membrane were thickened by the alignment of nucleocapsids on the internal surface and projections of 10 nm long viral glycoprotein spikes on the external surface. Virus assembly and release was achieved by budding through the modified plasma membrane. Negatively stained virions were spherical and partly pleomorphic with a diameter of 150–300 nm as seen by electron microscopy. The virus was sensitive to chloroform, heat and low and high pH, and replication was not inhibited by Br-dU or IdU indicating an RNA genome. Both haemagglutination and receptor-destroying enzyme activity were associated with the virions and the formation of syncytia in infected cultures indicated fusion activity. The receptor-destroying enzyme was identified as neuraminidase. The virus contained five major structural polypeptides with estimated molecular masses of 70, 62, 60, 48 and 37 kDa. Its buoyant density was 1·18–1·19 g ml in CsCl gradients. From the observed properties we conclude that this new virus belongs to the and suggest the name Atlantic salmon paramyxovirus (ASPV). Furthermore, replication occurred at 6–21 °C, suggesting a host range confined to cold-blooded animals.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.18962-0
2003-08-01
2020-01-28
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/84/8/vir842179.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.18962-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Ahne, W., Batts, W. N., Kurath, G. & Winton, J. R. ( 1999; ). Comparative sequence analyses of sixteen reptilian paramyxoviruses. Virus Res 63, 65–74.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bächi, T. ( 1980; ). Intramembrane structural differentiation in Sendai virus maturation. Virology 106, 41–49.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Berkaloff, A. ( 1963; ). Étude au microscope électronique de la morphogenèse de la particule du virus Sendaï. J Microsc 2, 633–638.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Body, A., Lieffrig, F., Charlier, G. & Collard, A. ( 2000; ). Isolation of virus-like particles from koi (Cyprinus carpio) suffering gill necrosis. Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 20, 87–88.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bols, N. C., Barlian, A., Chirino-Trejo, M., Caldwell, S. J., Goegan, P. & Lee, L. E. J. ( 1994; ). Development of a cell line from primary cultures of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), gills. J Fish Dis 17, 601–611.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Centers for Disease Control ( 1982; ). Concepts and Procedures for Laboratory Based Influenza Surveillance. Washington, DC: Centers for Disease Control, US Department of Health and Human Services.
  7. Choppin, P. W. ( 1964; ). Multiplication of a myxovirus (SV5) with minimal cytopathic effects and without interference. Virology 23, 224–233.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Clark, H. F., Lief, F. S., Lunger, D. P., Water, D., Leloup, P., Foelsch, D. & Wyler, R. W. ( 1979; ). Fer de Lance virus (FDLV): a probable paramyxovirus isolated from a reptile. J Gen Virol 44, 405–418.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Compans, R. W., Holmes, K. V., Dales, S. & Choppin, P. W. ( 1966; ). An electron microscopic study of moderate and virulent virus–cell interactions of the parainfluenza virus SV5. Virology 30, 411–426.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Dannevig, B. H., Falk, K. & Namork, E. ( 1995; ). Isolation of the causal virus of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) in a long-term cell line from Atlantic salmon head kidney. J Gen Virol 76, 1353–1359.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Darlington, R. W., Portner, A. & Kingsbury, D. W. ( 1970; ). Sendai virus replication: an ultrastructural comparison of productive and abortive infections in avian cells. J Gen Virol 9, 169–177.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Fedova, D. & Zelenkova, L. ( 1969; ). Use of the fluorescent antibody method in the diagnosis of M. parainfluenzae. I. Proliferation of M. parainfluenzae types 1, 2 and 3 in monkey kidney tissue cultures. J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol 13, 13–23.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Fijan, N., Sulimanovic, D., Bearzotti, M., Muzinic, D., Zwillenberg, L. O., Chilmonczyk, S., Vautherot, J. F. & de Kinkelin, P. ( 1983; ). Some properties of the epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cell line from carp (Cyprinus carpio). Ann Virol 134E, 207–220.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Haenen, O. L. M., Dijkstra, S. G., van Tulden, P. W., Davidse, A., van Nieuwstadt, A. P., Wagenaar, F. & Wellenberg, G. J. ( 2002; ). Herpesvirus anguillae (HVA) isolates from disease outbreaks in cultured European eel, Anguilla anguilla in the Netherlands since 1996. Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 22, 247–257.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Hedrick, R. P., Gilad, O., Yun, S., Spangenberg, J. V., Marty, G. D., Nordhausen, R. W., Kebus, M. J., Bercovier, H. & Eldar, A. ( 2000; ). A herpesvirus associated with mass mortality of juvenile and adult koi, a strain of common carp. J Aquat Anim Health 12, 44–57.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Hoffman, G. L., Dunbar, C. E., Wolf, K. & Zwillenberg, L. O. ( 1969; ). Epitheliocystis, a new infectious disease of the bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). Antonie Leeuwenhoek 35, 146–158.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Howe, C., Morgan, C., de Vaux St Cyr, C., Hsu, K. C. & Rose, H. M. ( 1967; ). Morphogenesis of type 2 parainfluenza virus examined by light and electron microscopy. J Virol 1, 215–237.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Hyatt, A. D., Hine, P. M., Jones, J. B., Whittington, R. J., Kearns, C., Wise, T. G., Crane, M. S. & Williams, L. M. ( 1997; ). Epizootic mortality in the pilchard Sardinops sagax neopilchardus in Australia and New Zealand in 1995. II. Identification of a herpesvirus within the gill epithelium. Dis Aquat Org 28, 17–29.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Kärber, G. ( 1931; ). Beitrag zur kollektiven Behandlung pharmakologischer Reihenversuche. Arch Exp Pathol Pharmakol 162, 480–483.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Kim, J., Hama, K., Miyake, Y. & Okada, Y. ( 1979; ). Transformation of intramembrane particles of HVJ (Sendai virus) envelopes from an invisible to visible form on aging of virions. Virology 95, 523–535.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Kvellestad, A., Aune, L. G. & Dannevig, B. H. ( 2002; ). Washing and disinfection of fish gills: prevention of contamination by normal surface microflora of cell cultures inoculated with tissue for isolation of intracellular pathogens. J Aquat Anim Health 14, 45–49.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Laemmli, U. K. ( 1970; ). Cleavage of structural proteins during assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 227, 680–685.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Lamb, R. A. & Kolakofsky, D. ( 2001; ). Paramyxoviridae: the viruses and their replication. In Fields Virology, 4th edn, vol. 1, pp. 1305–1340. Edited by D. M. Knipe & P. M. Howley. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  24. Lamb, R. A., Collins, P. L., Kolakofsky, D., Melero, J. A., Nagai, Y., Oldstone, M. B. A., Pringle, C. R. & Rima, B. K. ( 2000; ). Family Paramyxoviridae. In Virus Taxonomy. Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses. Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, pp. 549–561. Edited by M. H. V. van Regenmortel, C. M. Fauquet, D. H. L. Bishop, E. B. Carstens, M. K. Estes, S. M. Lemon, J. Maniloff, M. A. Mayo, D. J. McGeoch, C. R. Pringle & R. B. Wickner. San Diego: Academic Press.
  25. Lannan, C. N., Winton, J. R. & Fryer, J. L. ( 1984; ). Fish cell lines: establishment and characterization of nine cell lines from salmonids. In Vitro 20, 671–676.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Lee, N.-S., Kobayashi, J. & Miyazaki, T. ( 1999a; ). Gill filament necrosis in farmed Japanese eels, Anguilla japonica (Temminck & Schlegel), infected with Herpesvirus anguillae. J Fish Dis 22, 457–463.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Lee, N.-S., Nomura, Y. & Miyazaki, T. ( 1999b; ). Gill lamellar pillar cell necrosis, a new birnavirus disease in Japanese eels. Dis Aquat Org 37, 13–21.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. McNulty, M. S., Gowans, E. J., Louza, A. C. & Fraser, G. ( 1977; ). An electron microscopic study of MDBK cells persistently infected with Newcastle disease virus. Arch Virol 53, 185–195.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Markwell, M. A. K. & Fox, C. F. ( 1980; ). Protein–protein interactions within paramyxoviruses identified by native disulfide bonding or reversible chemical cross-linking. J Virol 33, 152–166.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Melby, H. P., Krogsrud, J., Håstein, T. & Stenwig, H. ( 1991; ). All commercial Atlantic salmon seawater farms in Norway harbour carriers of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV). In Proceedings from the 2nd International Symposium on Viruses of Lower Vertebrates, July 29–31, pp. 211–217. Edited by J. L. Fryer. Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA.
  31. Nakai, T., Shand, F. L. & Howatson, A. F. ( 1969; ). Development of measles virus in vitro. Virology 38, 50–67.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Norrby, E., Marusyk, H. & Örvell, C. ( 1970; ). Morphogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus in a green monkey cell line (Vero). J Virol 6, 237–242.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Prentø, P. ( 1985; ). Metalkompleksfarvestoffer (Metal-complex stains). In Histokemi, vol. 1, pp. 7.1–7.22. Edited by H. Lyon. København: DSR Forlag Landbohøjskolen.
  34. Prentø, P., Lyon, H. & Hasselager, E. ( 1985; ). Påvisning af ioniserede eller ioniserbare grupper (Detection of ionized or ionizable groups). In Histokemi, vol. 1, pp. 6.1–6.48. Edited by H. Lyon. København: DSR Forlag Landbohøjskolen.
  35. Shchelkunov, I. S. & Shchelkunova, T. I. ( 1990; ). Infectivity experiments with Cyprino carpio iridovirus (CCIV), a virus unassociated with carp gill necrosis. J Fish Dis 13, 475–484.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Vlasak, R., Krystal, M., Nacht, M. & Palese, P. ( 1987; ). The influenza C virus glycoprotein (HE) exhibits receptor-binding (hemagglutinin) and receptor-destroying (esterase) activities. Virology 160, 419–425.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Wang, L.-F. & Eaton, B. T. ( 2001; ). Emerging paramyxoviruses. Infect Dis Rev 3, 52–69.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Winton, J. R., Lannan, C. N., Ransom, D. P. & Fryer, J. L. ( 1985; ). Isolation of a new virus from chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in Oregon USA. Fish Pathol 20, 373–380.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Wolf, K., Gravell, M. & Malsberger, R. G. ( 1966; ). Lymphocystis virus: isolation and propagation in a centrarchid fish cell line. Science 151, 1004–1005.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.18962-0
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.18962-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited articles

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error