1887

Abstract

The chicken alphaherpesvirus infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) exhibits several unique genetic features including an internal inversion of a conserved part of the unique long genome region. At one end, this inversion is preceded by a cluster of five open reading frames (ORFs) of 335–411 codons, designated ORF A to ORF E, that are not present in any other known herpesvirus genome. In this report we analysed expression of these genes and identified the corresponding viral RNA and protein products. Northern blot analyses showed 3′-coterminal transcripts of ORFs A and B, and monocistronic mRNAs of ORFs C and D. ORF E is part of a 3′-coterminal transcription unit that includes the conserved glycoprotein H and thymidine kinase genes. Monospecific antisera obtained after immunization of rabbits with bacterial fusion proteins allowed detection of the protein products of ORF A (40 kDa), ORF B (34 kDa), ORF C (38 and 30 kDa), ORF D (41 kDa) and ORF E (44 kDa) in ILTV-infected cells. For functional analyses, five virus recombinants possessing deletions within the individual ORFs and concomitant insertions of a reporter gene cassette encoding green fluorescent protein were generated. All virus mutants were replication competent in cell culture, but exhibited reduced virus titres or plaque sizes when compared to wild-type ILTV. These findings indicate that the ILTV-specific ORF A to ORF E genes might be important for virus replication in the natural host organism.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.18926-0
2003-06-01
2020-01-27
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/84/6/vir841415.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.18926-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Bagust, T. J. & Guy, J. S. ( 1997; ). Laryngotracheitis. In Diseases of Poultry, 10th edn, pp. 527–539. Edited by B. W. Calnek, H. J. Barnes, C. W. Beard, L. R. McDougald & Y. M. Saif. Ames: Iowa State University Press.
  2. Ben-Porat, T., Veach, R. A. & Ihara, S. ( 1983; ). Localization of the regions of homology between the genomes of herpes simplex virus type 1 and pseudorabies virus. Virology 127, 194–204.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Chomczynski, P. & Sacchi, N. ( 1987; ). Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate–phenol–chloroform extraction. Anal Biochem 162, 156–159.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Davison, A. J. & Scott, J. E. ( 1986; ). The complete DNA sequence of varicella-zoster virus. J Gen Virol 67, 1759–1816.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Fuchs, W. & Mettenleiter, T. C. ( 1996; ). DNA sequence and transcriptional analysis of the UL1 to UL5 gene cluster of infectious laryngotracheitis virus. J Gen Virol 77, 2221–2229.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Fuchs, W. & Mettenleiter, T. C. ( 1999; ). DNA sequence of the UL6 to UL20 genes of infectious laryngotracheitis virus and characterization of the UL10 gene product as a nonglycosylated and nonessential virion protein. J Gen Virol 80, 2173–2182.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Fuchs, W., Ziemann, K., Teifke, J. P., Werner, O. & Mettenleiter, T. C. ( 2000; ). The non-essential UL50 gene of avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus encodes a functional dUTPase which is not a virulence factor. J Gen Virol 81, 627–638.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Fuchs, W., Klupp, B. G., Granzow, H., Osterrieder, N. & Mettenleiter, T. C. ( 2002; ). The interacting UL31 and UL34 gene products of pseudorabies virus are involved in egress from the host-cell nucleus and represent components of primary enveloped but not mature virions. J Virol 76, 364–378.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Graham, F. L. & van der Eb, A. J. ( 1973; ). A new technique for the assay of infectivity of human adenovirus 5 DNA. Virology 52, 456–467.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Granzow, H., Klupp, B. G., Fuchs, W., Veits, J., Osterrieder, N. & Mettenleiter, T. C. ( 2001; ). Egress of alphaherpesviruses: comparative ultrastructural study. J Virol 75, 3675–3684.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Guo, P., Scholz, E., Turek, J., Nodgreen, R. & Maloney, B. ( 1993; ). Assembly pathway of avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus. Am J Vet Res 54, 2031–2039.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Hengel, H., Brune, W. & Koszinowski, U. H. ( 1998; ). Immune evasion by cytomegalovirus – survival strategies of a highly adapted opportunist. Trends Microbiol 6, 190–197.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Johnson, M. A. & Tyack, S. G. ( 1995; ). Molecular evolution of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV; gallid herpesvirus 1): an ancient example of the Alphaherpesviridae? Vet Microbiol 46, 221–231.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Johnson, M. A., Tyack, S. G., Prideaux, C. T., Kongsuwan, K. & Sheppard, M. ( 1997; ). Nucleotide sequence of the left-terminus of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (gallid herpesvirus 1) SA-2 strain. Arch Virol 142, 1903–1910.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Jones, D., Lee, L., Liu, J. L., Kung, H. J. & Tillotson, J. K. ( 1992; ). Marek disease virus encodes a basic-leucine zipper gene resembling the fos/jun oncogenes that is highly expressed in lymphoblastoid tumors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89, 4042–4046.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Kawaguchi, T., Nomura, K., Hirayama, Y. & Kitagawa, T. ( 1987; ). Establishment and characterization of a chicken hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, LMH. Cancer Res 47, 4460–4464.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Leib, D. A., Bradbury, J. M., Hart, C. A. & McCarthy, K. ( 1987; ). Genome isomerism in two alphaherpesviruses: herpesvirus saimiri-1 (herpesvirus tamarinus) and avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus. Arch Virol 93, 287–294.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Lüschow, D., Werner, O., Mettenleiter, T. C. & Fuchs, W. ( 2001; ). Protection of chickens from lethal avian influenza A virus infection by live-virus vaccination with infectious laryngotracheitis virus recombinants expressing the hemagglutinin (H5) gene. Vaccine 19, 4249–4259.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. McGeoch, D. J., Dalrymple, M. A., Davison, A. J., Dolan, A., Frame, M. C., McNab, D., Perry, L. J., Scott, J. E. & Taylor, P. ( 1988; ). The complete DNA sequence of the long unique region in the genome of herpes simplex virus type 1. J Gen Virol 69, 1531–1574.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. McGeoch, D. J., Dolan, A. & Ralph, A. C. ( 2000; ). Toward a comprehensive phylogeny for mammalian and avian herpesviruses. J Virol 74, 10401–10406.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Mettenleiter, T. C. ( 1989; ). Glycoprotein gIII deletion mutants of pseudorabies virus are impaired in virus entry. Virology 171, 623–625.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Mettenleiter, T. C. ( 2002; ). Herpesvirus assembly and egress. J Virol 76, 1537–1547.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Minson, A. C., Davison, A., Eberle, R., Desrosiers, R. C., Fleckenstein, B., McGeoch, D. J., Pellet, P. E., Roizman, B. & Studdert, D. M. J. ( 2000; ). Family Herpesviridae. In Virus Taxonomy, pp. 203–225. Edited by M. H. V. van Regenmortel, C. M. Fauquet, D. H. L. Bishop, E. B. Carstens, M. K. Estes, S. M. Lemon, J. Maniloff, M. A. Mayo, D. J. McGeoch, C. R. Pringle & R. B. Wickner. San Diego: Academic Press.
  24. Okamura, H., Sakaguchi, M., Honda, T., Taneno, A., Matsuo, K. & Yamada, S. ( 1994; ). Construction of recombinant infectious laryngotracheitis virus expressing the lacZ gene of E. coli with thymidine kinase gene. J Vet Med Sci 56, 799–801.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Rauh, I. & Mettenleiter, T. C. ( 1991; ). Pseudorabies virus glycoproteins gII and gp50 are essential for virus penetration. J Virol 65, 5348–5356.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Roizman, B. & Knipe, D. M. ( 2001; ). Herpes simplex viruses and their replication. In Fields Virology, 4th edn, pp. 2399–2459. Edited by D. M. Knipe & P. M. Howley. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  27. Roizman, B. & Pellett, P. E. ( 2001; ). The family Herpesviridae: a brief introduction. In Fields Virology, 4th edn, pp. 2381–2397. Edited by D. M. Knipe & P. M. Howley. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  28. Schnitzlein, W. M., Radzevicius, J. & Tripathy, D. N. ( 1994; ). Propagation of infectious laryngotracheitis virus in an avian liver cell line. Avian Dis 38, 211–217.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Schnitzlein, W. M., Winans, R., Ellsworth, S. & Tripathy, D. N. ( 1995; ). Generation of thymidine kinase-deficient mutants of infectious laryngotracheitis virus. Virology 209, 304–314.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Telford, E. A. R., Watson, M. S., McBride, K. & Davison, A. J. ( 1992; ). The DNA sequence of equine herpesvirus-1. Virology 189, 304–316.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Tulman, E. R., Alfonso, C. L., Lu, Z., Zsak, L., Rock, D. L. & Kutish, G. F. ( 2000; ). The genome of a very virulent Marek's disease virus. J Virol 74, 7980–7988.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Veits, J., Köllner, B., Teifke, J. P., Granzow, H., Mettenleiter, T. C. & Fuchs, W. ( 2003; ). Isolation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against structural proteins of infectious laryngotracheitis virus. Avian Dis (in press).
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Wild, M. A., Cook, S. & Cochran, M. ( 1996; ). A genomic map of infectious laryngotracheitis virus and the sequence and organization of genes present in the unique short and flanking regions. Virus Genes 12, 107–116.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Ziemann, K., Mettenleiter, T. C. & Fuchs, W. ( 1998a; ). Gene arrangement within the unique long genome region of infectious laryngotracheitis virus is distinct from that of other alphaherpesviruses. J Virol 72, 847–852.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Ziemann, K., Mettenleiter, T. C. & Fuchs, W. ( 1998b; ). Infectious laryngotracheitis herpesvirus expresses a related pair of unique nuclear proteins which are encoded by split genes located at the right end of the UL genome region. J Virol 72, 6867–6874.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.18926-0
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.18926-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited articles

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error