1887

Abstract

Equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV) is an important respiratory pathogen of horses and is of additional interest because of its close relationship and common classification with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). As is the case with FMDV, the VP1 capsid protein of ERAV has been shown to be a target of neutralizing antibodies. In FMDV VP1, such antibodies commonly recognize linear epitopes present in the G–H loop region. To map linear B cell epitopes in ERAV VP1, overlapping fragments spanning its length were expressed in as glutathione -transferase (GST) fusion proteins. These fusion proteins were tested for reactivity with sera from ERAV-infected horses and with polyclonal sera from ERAV-immunized rabbits and mice. Regions at the N- and C-termini as well as the E–F and the G–H loop regions contained B cell epitopes that elicited antibodies in the natural host. GST fusion proteins of these regions also elicited antibodies following immunization of rabbits and mice, which, in general, strongly recognized native ERAV VP1 but which were non-neutralizing. It is concluded that the N-terminal region of ERAV VP1, in particular, contains strong B cell epitopes.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.18848-0
2003-06-01
2020-08-05
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/84/6/vir841607.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.18848-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Acharya R., Fry E., Stuart D., Foz G., Rowlands D., Brown F.. 1989; The three-dimensional structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus at 2·9 Å resolution. Nature337:709–716
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Berinstein A., Roivainen M., Hovi T., Mason P. W., Baxt B.. 1995; Antibodies to the vitronectin receptor (integrin α V β 3) inhibit binding and infection of foot-and-mouth disease virus to cultured cells. J Virol69:2664–2666
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Brown F.. 1992; New approaches to vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease. Vaccine10:1022–1026
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Crabb B. S., Nagesha H. S., Studdert M. J.. 1992; Identification of equine herpesvirus 4 glycoprotein G: a type-specific, secreted glycoprotein. Virology190:143–154
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Crabb B. S., MacPherson C. M., Reubel G. H., Browning G. F., Studdert M. J., Drummer H. E.. 1995; A type-specific serological test to distinguish antibodies to equine herpesviruses 4 and 1. Arch Virol140:245–258
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Curry S., Fry E., Blakemore W., Abu-Ghazaleh R., Jackson T., King A., Lea S., Newman J., Stuart D.. 1997; Dissecting the roles of VP0 cleavage and RNA packaging in picornavirus capsid stabilization: the structure of empty capsids of foot-and-mouth disease virus. J Virol71:9743–9752
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Danen E. H., Aota S. I., van Kraats A. A., Yamada K. M., Ruiter D. J., van Muijen G. N.. 1995; Requirement for the synergy site for cell adhesion to fibronectin depends on the activation state of integrin α 5 β 1. J Biol Chem270:21612–21618
    [Google Scholar]
  8. DiMarchi R., Brooke G., Gale C., Cracknell V., Doel T., Mowat N.. 1986; Protection of cattle against foot-and-mouth disease by a synthetic peptide. Science232:639–641
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Fricks C. E., Hogle J. M.. 1990; Cell-induced conformational change in poliovirus: externalization of the amino terminus of VP1 is responsible for liposome binding. J Virol64:1934–1945
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Hartley C. A., Ficorilli N., Dynon K., Drummer H. E., Huang J. A., Studdert M. J.. 2001; Equine rhinitis A virus: structural proteins and immune response. J Gen Virol82:1725–1728
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Jackson T. J., Sheppard D., Denyer M., Blakemore W., King A. M. Q.. 2000; The epithelial integrin α v β 6 is a receptor for foot-and-mouth disease virus. J Virol74:4949–4956
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Lea S., Hernandez J., Blakemore W.. 7 other authors 1994; The structure and antigenicity of a type C foot-and-mouth disease virus. Structure2:123–139
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Li F., Browning G. F., Studdert M. J., Crabb B. S.. 1996; Equine rhinovirus 1 is more closely related to foot-and-mouth disease virus than to other picornaviruses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A93:990–995
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Luo M., Rossmann M. G., Palmenberg A. C.. 1988; Prediction of three-dimensional models for foot-and-mouth disease virus and hepatitis A virus. Virology166:503–514
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Mateu M. G.. 1995; Antibody recognition of picornaviruses and escape from neutralization: a structural view. Virus Res38:1–24
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Mateu M. G., Andreu D., Domingo E.. 1995; Antibodies raised in a natural host and monoclonal antibodies recognize similar antigenic features of foot-and-mouth disease virus. Virology210:120–127
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Newman J. F. E., Rowlands D. J., Brown F.. 1973; A physio-chemical sub-grouping of the mammalian picornaviruses. J Gen Virol18:171–180
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Page G. S., Mosser A., Hogle J. M., Filman D. J., Rueckert R. R., Chow M.. 1988; Three-dimensional structure of poliovirus serotype 1 neutralizing determinants. J Virol62:1781–1794
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Ping L. H., Lemon S. M.. 1992; Antigenic structure of human hepatitis A virus defined by analysis of escape mutants selected against murine monoclonal antibodies. J Virol66:2208–2216
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Plummer G.. 1962; An equine respiratory virus with enterovirus properties. Nature195:519–520
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Plummer G.. 1963; An equine respiratory enterovirus: some biological and physical properties. Arch Gesamte Virusforsch12:694–700
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Roivainen M., Piirainen L., Hovi T., Virtanen I., Riikonen T., Heino J., Hyypia T.. 1994; Entry of coxsackievirus A9 into host cells: specific interactions with α v β 3 integrin, the vitronectin receptor. Virology203:357–365
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Rueckert R. R.. 2001; Picornaviridae : the viruses and their replication. In Fields Virology , 4th edn. pp 685–715 Edited by Knipe D. M., Howley P. M.. Philadelphia: Lippincott–Raven;
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Stanway G.. 1990; Structure, function and evolution of picornaviruses. J Gen Virol71:2483–2501
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Strohmaier K., Franze R., Adam K. H.. 1982; Location and characterisation of the antigenic portion of the FMDV immunizing protein. J Gen Virol59:295–306
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Studdert M. J., Gleeson L. J.. 1978; Isolation and characterisation of an equine rhinovirus. Zentralbl Veterinarmed B25:225–237
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Varrasso A., Drummer H. E., Huang J. A., Stevenson R. A., Ficorilli N., Studdert M. J., Hartley C. A.. 2001; Sequence conservation and antigenic variation of the structural proteins of equine rhinitis A virus. J Virol75:10550–10556
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Warner S., Hartley C. A., Stevenson R. A., Ficorilli N., Varrasso A., Studdert M. J., Crabb B. S.. 2001; Evidence that equine rhinitis A virus is a target of neutralizing antibodies and participates directly in receptor binding. J Virol75:9274–9281
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Wutz G., Auer H., Nowotny N., Grosse B., Skern T., Kuechler E.. 1996; Equine rhinovirus serotypes 1 and 2: relationship to each other and to aphthoviruses and cardioviruses. J Gen Virol77:1719–1730
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Xie Q. C., McCahon D., Crowther J. R., Belsham G. J., McCullough K. C.. 1987; Neutralization of foot-and-mouth disease virus can be mediated through any of at least three separate antigenic sites. J Gen Virol68:1637–1647
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.18848-0
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.18848-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error