1887

Abstract

Both serotypes of herpes simplex virus (HSV), HSV-1 and HSV-2, are aetiological agents of genital herpes, although genital herpes caused by HSV-1 recurs less frequently. The HSV-1 genome contains a number of short, tandemly repeated sequences, and some reiterated sequences can serve as sensitive markers for the differentiation of HSV-1 strains. In the present study, variation in reiterations (assumed to be due to different copy numbers of tandemly repeated sequences) was examined in HSV-1 isolates from genital lesions from the same individual. Six sets (three primary-recurrence sets and three multiple-recurrence sets) of HSV-1 isolates were analysed: the primary-recurrence set consisted of two isolates (one isolated at a primary episode and the other at a recurrent episode) from the same individual; the multiple-recurrence set consisted of plural isolates from different episodes of recurrence in the same individual. Variations in length of the major DNA fragment, containing reiteration I (within the sequence) and/or reiteration IV (within introns of genes US1 and US12), were detected between isolates of each multiple-recurrence set, but not of the primary-recurrence set. Thus, HSV-1 isolates of multiple-recurrence sets are assumed to have diverged more widely within each set than those of primary-recurrence sets, probably because of more rounds of virus DNA replication. This divergence of reiterations seems to indicate a forward step in the division of HSV-1 from a common ancestor into different lineages.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.18809-0
2003-04-01
2021-03-08
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/84/4/vir840917.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.18809-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Buchman T. G., Roizman B., Adams G., Stover B. H.. 1978; Restriction endonuclease fingerprinting of herpes simplex virus DNA: a novel epidemiological tool applied to a nosocomial outbreak. J Infect Dis138:488–498
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Buchman T. G., Simpson T., Nosal C., Roizman B., Nahmias A. J.. 1980; The structure of herpes simplex virus DNA and its application to molecular epidemiology. Ann N Y Acad Sci354:279–290
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Chaney S. M. J., Warren K. G., Kettyls J., Zbitnue A., Subak-Sharpe J. H.. 1983; A comparative analysis of restriction enzyme digests of the DNA of herpes simplex virus isolated from genital and facial lesions. J Gen Virol64:357–371
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Davison A. J., Wilkie N. M.. 1981; Nucleotide sequences of the joint between the L and S segments of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2. J Gen Virol55:315–331
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Dolan A., Jamieson F. E., Cunningham C., Barnett B. C., McGeoch D. J.. 1998; The genome sequence of herpes simplex virus type 2. J Virol72:2010–2021
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Everett R. D.. 2000; ICP0, a regulator of herpes simplex virus during lytic and latent infection. Bioessays22:761–770
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Hashido M., Inouye S., Kawana T.. 1997; Differentiation of primary from nonprimary genital herpes infections by a herpes simplex virus-specific immunoglobulin G avidity assay. J Clin Microbiol35:1766–1768
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Hashido M., Lee F. K., Nahmias A. J., Tsugami H., Isomura S., Nagata Y., Sonoda S., Kawana T.. 1998; An epidemiologic study of herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 infection in Japan based on type-specific serological assays. Epidemiol Infect120:179–186
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Kawana T., Kawagoe K., Takizawa K., Chen T., Kawaguchi T., Sakamoto S.. 1982; Clinical and virologic studies on female genital herpes. Obstet Gynecol60:456–461
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Kinghorn G. R.. 1993; Genital herpes: natural history and treatment of acute episodes. J Med Virol Supplement1:33–38
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Lafferty W. E., Coombs R. W., Benedetti J., Critchlow C., Corey L.. 1987; Recurrences after oral and genital herpes simplex virus infection: influence of site of infection and viral type. N Engl J Med316:1444–1449
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Lafferty W. E., Downey L., Celum C., Wald A.. 2000; Herpes simplex virus type 1 as a cause of genital herpes: impact on surveillance and prevention. J Infect Dis181:1454–1457
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Lonsdale D. M., Brown S. M., Lang J., Subak-Sharpe J. H., Koprowski H., Warren K. G.. 1980; Variations in herpes simplex virus isolated from human ganglia and a study of clonal variation in HSV-1. Ann N Y Acad Sci354:291–308
    [Google Scholar]
  14. McGeoch D. J., Cook S.. 1994; Molecular phylogeny of the alphaherpesvirinae subfamily and a proposed evolutionary timescale. J Mol Biol238:9–22
    [Google Scholar]
  15. McGeoch D. J., Dalrymple M. A., Davison A. J., Dolan A., Frame M. C., McNab D., Perry L. J., Scott J. E., Taylor P.. 1988; The complete DNA sequence of the long unique region in the genome of herpes simplex virus type 1. J Gen Virol69:1531–1574
    [Google Scholar]
  16. McGeoch D. J., Cook S., Dolan A., Jamieson F. E., Telford E. A. R.. 1995; Molecular phylogeny and evolutionary timescale for the family of mammalian herpesviruses. J Mol Biol247:443–458
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Maertzdorf J., Remeijer L., Van Der Lelij A., Buitenwerf J., Niesters H. G. M., Osterhaus A. D. M. E., Verjans G. M. G. M.. 1999; Amplification of reiterated sequences of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) genome to discriminate between clinical HSV-1 isolates. J Clin Microbiol37:3518–3523
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Maertzdorf J., van der Lelij A., Baarsma G. S., Osterhaus A. D. M. E., Verjans G. M. G. M.. 2000; Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)-induced retinitis following herpes simplex encephalitis: indications for brain-to-eye transmission of HSV-1. Ann Neurol48:936–939
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Martin D. W., Weber P. C.. 1998; Role of the DR2 repeat array in the regulation of the ICP34.5 gene promoter of herpes simplex virus type 1 during productive infection. J Gen Virol79:517–523
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Mertz G. J.. 1990; Genital herpes simplex virus infections. Med Clin N Am74:1433–1454
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Mocarski E. S., Roizman B.. 1981; Site-specific inversion sequence of the herpes simplex virus genome: domain and structural features. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A78:7047–7051
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Mocarski E. S., Deiss L. P., Frenkel N.. 1985; Nucleotide sequence and structural features of a novel US- a junction present in a defective herpes simplex virus genome. J Virol55:140–146
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Preston C. M.. 2000; Repression of viral transcription during herpes simplex virus latency. J Gen Virol81:1–19
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Remeijer L., Maertzdorf J., Doornenbal P., Verjans G. M. G. M., Osterhaus A. D. M. E.. 2001; Herpes simplex virus 1 transmission through corneal transplantation. Lancet357:442
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Remeijer L., Maertzdorf J., Buitenwerf J., Osterhaus A. D. M. E., Verjans G. M. G. M.. 2002; Corneal herpes simplex virus type 1 superinfection in patients with recrudescent herpetic keratitis. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci43:358–363
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Ribes J. A., Steele A. D., Seabolt J. P., Baker D. J.. 2001; Six-year study of the incidence of herpes in genital and nongenital cultures in a central Kentucky Medical Center patient population. J Clin Microbiol39:3321–3325
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Rixon F. J., Campbell M. E., Clements B.. 1984; A tandemly reiterated DNA sequence in the long repeated region of herpes simplex virus type 1 found in close proximity to immediate-early mRNA 1. J Virol52:715–718
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Sakaoka H., Kurita K., Iida Y., Takada S., Umene K., Kim Y. T., Ren C. S., Nahmias A. J.. 1994; Quantitative analysis of genomic polymorphism of herpes simplex virus type 1 strains from six countries: studies of molecular evolution and molecular epidemiology of the virus. J Gen Virol75:513–527
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Stanberry L., Cunningham A., Mertz G.. 7 other authors 1999; New developments in the epidemiology, natural history and management of genital herpes. Antiviral Res42:1–14
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Sucato G., Wald A., Wakabayashi E., Vieria J., Corey L.. 1998; Evidence of latency and reactivation of both herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and HSV-2 in the genital region. J Infect Dis177:1069–1072
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Taylor S., Drake S., Pillay D.. 1999; Genital herpes, ‘the new paradigm’. J Clin Pathol52:1–4
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Umene K.. 1985a; Intermolecular recombination of the herpes simplex virus type 1 genome analysed using two strains differing in restriction enzyme cleavage sites. J Gen Virol66:2659–2670
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Umene K.. 1985b; Variability of the region of the herpes simplex virus type 1 genome yielding defective DNA: Sma I fragment polymorphism. Intervirology23:131–139
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Umene K.. 1987; Restriction endonucleases recognizing DNA sequences of four base pairs facilitate differentiation of herpes simplex virus type 1 strains. Arch Virol97:197–214
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Umene K.. 1991; Recombination of the internal direct repeat element DR2 responsible for the fluidity of the a sequence of herpes simplex virus type 1. J Virol65:5410–5416
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Umene K.. 1998a; Herpesvirus: Genetic Variability and Recombination Fukuoka: Touka Shobo;
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Umene K.. 1998b; Molecular epidemiology of herpes simplex virus type 1. Rev Med Microbiol9:217–224
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Umene K.. 1999; Mechanism and application of genetic recombination in herpesviruses. Rev Med Virol9:171–182
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Umene K.. 2001; Cleavage in and around the DR1 element of the a sequence of herpes simplex virus type 1 relevant to the excision of DNA fragments with length corresponding to one and two units of the a sequence. J Virol75:5870–5878
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Umene K., Enquist L. W.. 1981; A deletion analysis of lambda hybrid phage carrying the US region of herpes simplex virus type 1 (Patton). I. Isolation of deletion derivatives and identification of chi -like sequences. Gene13:251–268
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Umene K., Yoshida M.. 1989; Reiterated sequences of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) genome can serve as physical markers for the differentiation of HSV-1 strains. Arch Virol106:281–299
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Umene K., Sakaoka H.. 1991; Homogeneity and diversity of genome polymorphism in a set of herpes simplex virus type 1 strains classified as the same genotypic group. Arch Virol119:53–65
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Umene K., Yoshida M.. 1993; Genomic characterization of two predominant genotypes of herpes simplex virus type 1. Arch Virol131:29–46
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Umene K., Yoshida M.. 1994; Preparation of herpes simplex virus type 1 genomic markers to differentiate strains of predominant genotypes. Arch Virol138:55–69
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Umene K., Sakaoka H.. 1997; Populations of two Eastern countries of Japan and Korea and with a related history share a predominant genotype of herpes simplex virus type 1. Arch Virol142:1953–1961
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Umene K., Sakaoka H.. 1999; Evolution of herpes simplex virus type 1 under herpesviral evolutionary processes. Arch Virol144:637–656
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Umene K., Kawana T.. 2000; Molecular epidemiology of herpes simplex virus type 1 genital infection in association with clinical manifestations. Arch Virol145:505–522
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Umene K., Eto T., Mori R., Takagi Y., Enquist L. W.. 1984; Herpes simplex virus type 1 restriction fragment polymorphism determined using Southern hybridization. Arch Virol80:275–290
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Vanderhooft S., Kirby P.. 1992; Genital herpes simplex virus infection: natural history. Semin Dermatol11:190–199
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Varmuza S. L., Smiley J. R.. 1985; Signals for site-specific cleavage of HSV DNA: maturation involves two separate cleavage events at sites distal to the recognition sequences. Cell41:793–802
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Wells R. D., Collier D. A., Hanvey J. C., Shimizu M., Wohlrab F.. 1988; The chemistry and biology of unusual DNA structures adopted by oligopurine·oligopyrimidine sequences. FASEB J2:2939–2949
    [Google Scholar]
  52. White C., Wardropper A. G.. 1997; Genital herpes simplex infection in women. Clin Dermatol15:81–91
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Wohlrab F., McLean M. J., Wells R. D.. 1987; The segment inversion site of herpes simplex virus type 1 adopts a novel DNA structure. J Biol Chem262:6407–6416
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.18809-0
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.18809-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error