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Abstract

Pseudorabies virus (PRV) may cause abortion, even in the presence of vaccination-induced immunity. Blood monocytes are essential to transport the virus in these immune animals, including transport to the pregnant uterus. Infected monocytes express viral proteins on their cell surface. Specific antibodies recognize these proteins and should activate antibody-dependent cell lysis. Previous work showed that addition of PRV-specific polyclonal antibodies to PRV-infected monocytes induced internalization of viral cell surface proteins, protecting the cells from efficient antibody-dependent lysis (immune-masked monocytes). As a first step to reach the pregnant uterus, PRV has to cross the endothelial cell barrier of the maternal blood vessels. The current aim was to investigate whether immune-masked PRV-infected monocytes can transmit PRV in the presence of virus-neutralizing antibodies via adhesion and fusion of these monocytes with endothelial cells. Porcine blood monocytes, infected with a -carrying PRV strain, were incubated with PRV-specific antibodies to induce internalization. Then, cells were co-cultivated with endothelial cells for different periods of time. Only PRV-infected monocytes with internalized viral cell surface proteins adhered efficiently to endothelial cells. LacZ transmission to endothelial cells, as a measure for monocyte–endothelial cell fusion, could be detected after co-cultivation from 30 min onwards. Virus transmission was confirmed by the appearance of plaques. Adhesion of immune-masked PRV-infected monocytes to endothelial cells was mediated by cellular adhesion complex CD11b–CD18 and subsequent fusion was mediated by the virus. In conclusion, immune-masked PRV-infected monocytes can adhere and subsequently transmit virus to endothelial cells in the presence of PRV-neutralizing antibodies.

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2003-03-01
2020-01-29
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