1887

Abstract

T helper cytokine and IgG subtype responses were studied in three strains of mice (C57BL/6J, Swiss albino, BALB/c; =90 per strain) immunized with live Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) by intraperitoneal (IP), subcutaneous (SC) and peroral (PO) routes. Lymphocytes obtained from the spleens of immunized and control mice were stimulated with JEV for 48 h and the supernatants were assayed for the presence of the cytokines IL-4 and IFN-. JEV-specific IgG isotypes were also measured in the sera of immunized mice. T helper cytokine responses in mice immunized with JEV were found to be strain- and route-specific in the three species tested. Moreover, they were also dependent on the type of immunogen used (live vs killed virus), as well as the number of doses administered. C57BL/6J and BALB/c mice were more uniform in their T helper responses compared with the outbred Swiss albino mice and induced a good Th1 response (<0·001). Among the three routes evaluated, the IP and SC routes consistently elicited a Th1 response compared with the PO route (<0·001), where an initial Th2-type response reverted to a Th1 response after repeated immunization. Live JEV induced a Th1 response while the commercial killed vaccine induced a predominant Th2 profile.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.18676-0
2003-06-01
2019-10-14
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/84/6/vir841559.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.18676-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Andersen, M. M. & Ronne, T. ( 1991; ). Side effects with Japanese encephalitis vaccine. Lancet 337, 1044.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Belosevic, M., Finboolm, D. S., Meide, P. V. D., Slayter, M. Z. & Nacy, C. A. ( 1989; ). Administration of monoclonal anti IFN-gamma antibodies in vivo abrogates natural resistance of C3H/HeN mice to infection with Leishmania major. J Immunol 143, 266–271.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Chen, H. W., Pan, C. H., Liau, M. Y., Jou, R., Tsai, C. J., Wu, H. J., Lin, Y. L. & Tao, M. H. ( 1999; ). Screening of protective antigens of Japanese encephalitis virus by DNA immunization: a comparative study with conventional viral vaccines. J Virol 73, 10137–10145.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Comoy, E. E., Vendeville, C., Capron, A. & Thyphronitis, G. ( 1997; ). Infection with Salmonella typhimurium modulates the immune response to Schistosoma mansoni Gluthione-S-Transferase. Infect Immun 65, 3261–3266.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Coutelier, J. P., Vanderlogt, T. T. M., Heesen, F. W. A., Vink, A. & Snick, J. V. ( 1988; ). Virally induced modulation of murine IgG antibody subclasses. J Exp Med 168, 2373–2378.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Desai, A., Ravi, V., Chandramuki, A. & Gourie-Devi, M. ( 1994; ). Detection of neutralizing antibodies to Japanese encephalitis virus in the cerebrospinal fluid using a rapid microneutralization test. Serodiag Immunother Infect Dis 6, 130–134.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Desai, A., Ravi, V., Chandramuki, A. & Gourie-Devi, M. ( 1995; ). Proliferative response of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to Japanese encephalitis virus. Microbiol Immunol 39, 269–273.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Eckels, K. H., Yong-Xin, Y., Duboid, D. R., Marchette, N. V., Trent, D. W. & Johnson, A. J. ( 1988; ). Japanese encephalitis virus live attenuated vaccine, Chinese strain SA 14-14-2; adaptation to primary canine kidney cell cultures and preparation of a vaccine for human use. Vaccine 6, 513–518.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Finkleman, F. D., Holmes, J., Katona, I. M. & 7 other authors ( 1990; ). Lymphokine control of in vivo immunoglobulin isotype selection. Annu Rev Immunol 8, 303–333.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Gould, E. A. & Clegg, J. C. S. ( 1991; ). Growth, titration and purification of alphaviruses and flaviviruses. In Virology, a Practical Approach, pp. 44–78. Edited by B. W. J. Mahy. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
  11. Hanna, J. N., Ritchie, S. A., Phillips, D. A., Shield, J., Bailey, M. C., Mackenzie, J. S., Poidinger, M., McCall, B. J. & Mills, P. J. ( 1996; ). An outbreak of Japanese encephalitis in Torres strait, Australia, 1995. Med J Aust 165, 256–260.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Hu-Li, J., Huang, H., Ryan, J. & Paul, W. E. ( 1997; ). In differentiated CD4+ T cells, interleukin 4 production is cytokine autonomous, whereas interferon-gamma is cytokine dependent. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94, 3189–3194.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Igarashi, A., Tanaka, M. & Morita, K. ( 1994; ). Detection of West Nile and Japanese encephalitis viral genome sequences in cerebrospinal fluid from acute encephalitis cases in Karachi, Pakistan. Microbiol Immunol 38, 827–830.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Keane-Myers, A. & Nickell, S. P. ( 1995; ). Role of IL-4 and IFN-γ in modulation of immunity to Borrelia burgdorferi in mice. J Immunol 155, 2020–2028.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Ku, C. C., King, C. C., Lin, C. Y., Hsu, H. L., Chen, L. Y., Yueh, Y. Y. & Chang, G. J. J. ( 1994; ). Homologous and heterologous neutralization antibody responses after immunization with Japanese Encephalitis Virus vaccine among Taiwan children. J Med Virol 44, 122–131.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Li, J., Scott, P. & Farrell, J. P. ( 1996; ). In vivo alterations in cytokine production following IL-12 and anti IL-4 antibody treatment of CB6F1 mice with chronic cutaneous Leishmaniasis. Infect Immun 64, 5248–5254.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Lin, Y. L., Chen, L. K., Liao, C. L., Yeh, T. H., Ma, S. H., Chen, J. L., Huang, Y. L., Chen, S. S. & Chiang, H. Y. ( 1998; ). DNA immunization with Japanese encephalitis virus nonstructural protein NS1 elicits protective immunity in mice. J Virol 72, 191–200.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Mason, P. W., Pincus, S., Fournier, M. J., Mason, T. L., Shope, R. E. & Paoletti, E. ( 1991; ). Japanese encephalitis virus–vaccinia recombinants produce particulate forms of the structural membrane proteins and induce high levels of protection against lethal Japanese encephalitis virus infection. Virology 180, 294–305.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Mathur, A., Arora, K. L. & Chaturvedi, U. C. ( 1983; ). Host defence mechanisms against Japanese encephalitis virus infection in mice. J Gen Virol 64, 805–811.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Monath, T. P. & Tsai, T. F. ( 1997; ). Flaviviruses. In A Textbook of Clinical Virology, pp. 1133–1185. Edited by D. D. Richman, R. J. Whitley & F. G. Hayden. New York: Churchill Livingstone.
  21. Muralikrishna, K., Ravi, V. & Manjunath, R. ( 1996; ). Protection of adult but not newborn mice against intracerebral challenge with Japanese encephalitis virus by adoptively transferred virus specific T lymphocytes: requirement of L3T4+ cells. J Gen Virol 77, 705–714.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Pan, H. C., Chen, H. W., Huang, H. W. & Tao, M. H. ( 2001; ). Protective mechanisms induced by a Japanese encephalitis virus DNA vaccine: requirement for antibody but not CD8+ cytotoxic T-cell responses. J Virol 75, 11457–11463.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Prasad, S. R., Kumar, V. & Marwah, R. K. ( 1993; ). An epidemic of encephalitis in Haryana: serological evidence for Japanese encephalitis in a few patients. Indian Pediatr 30, 905–910.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Ramakrishna, C., Desai, A., Shankar, S. K., Chandramuki, A. & Ravi, V. ( 1999; ). Oral immunization of mice with live Japanese encephalitis virus induces a protective immune response. Vaccine 17, 3102–3108.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Rao Bhao, K. N., Singh, G., Gowal, D., Saxena, S. N., Kobayashi, M., Oya, A. & Yoshioka, I. ( 1988; ). Safety and efficacy of Japanese encephalitis vaccine produced in India. Indian J Med Res 88, 301–306.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Romagnani, S. ( 1994; ). Lymphokine production by human T cells in disease states. Annu Rev Immunol 12, 227–251.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Scott, P. ( 1991; ). IFN-γ modulates the early development of Th1 and Th2 responses in a murine model of cutaneous leishmaniasis. J Immunol 147, 3149–3155.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Seder, R. A. & Paul, W. E. ( 1994; ). Acquisition of lymphokine-producing phenotype by CD4+ T cells. Annu Rev Immunol 12, 635–673.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Seder, R. A. & Mosmann, T. M. ( 1998; ). Differentiation of effector phenotypes of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. In Fundamental Immunology, pp. 879–908. Edited by W. E. Paul. New York: Lippincott–Raven.
  30. Skvaril, F. & Schilt, U. ( 1984; ). Characterization of the subclass and light chain types of IgG antibodies to rubella. Clin Exp Immunol 55, 671–676.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Snapper, C. M. & Paul, W. E. ( 1987; ). IFN-γ and B-cell stimulating factor 1 reciprocally regulate immunoglobulin isotype production. Science 236, 944–947.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Stevens, T. L., Bossie, A., Sanders, V. M., Fernandez-Bortran, R., Coffman, R. L., Mosmann, T. R. & Vitetta, E. S. ( 1988; ). Regulation of antibody isotype secretion by subsets of antigen-specific helper T cells. Nature 334, 225.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Thakare, J. P., Gore, M. M., Risbud, K. R., Banerjee, K. & Ghosh, S. N. ( 1991; ). Detection of virus specific IgG subclasses in Japanese encephalitis patients. Indian J Med Res 93, 271–276.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. World Health Organization (WHO) ( 1998; ). Japanese encephalitis vaccine – WHO position paper. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 73, 337–344.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.18676-0
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.18676-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error