1887

Abstract

In this study, we identified a novel virus from gentian () that causes ring-spots on ovaries. Furthermore, the virus causes unusual symptoms, ring-spots that appear specifically on the outer surface of the ovarian wall after pollination. Pollen grains carrying the virus were used to infect host plants by hand-pollination. RNA extracted from purified virions indicated that the virus had two segments, RNA1 and RNA2. The full-length cDNA sequence indicated that RNA1 had two ORFs: ORF1 had methyltransferase and helicase motifs, and ORF2 had an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase motif. RNA2 had five ORFs encoding a coat protein, triple gene block proteins 1–3 and a cysteine-rich protein. The length of RNA1 was 5519 bases and that of RNA2 was 3810 bases not including a polyU/polyA region between the first and second ORFs. Viral RNA does not have a polyA tail at the 3′ end. Sequence similarity and phylogenetic analysis suggested that the virus is closely related to members of the genera and but distinct from them. These combined results suggest that the causal agent inducing ring-spot symptoms on gentian ovaries is a new virus belonging to the family but not to any presently known genus. We tentatively name the virus gentian ovary ring-spot virus.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.071498-0
2015-02-01
2019-11-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/96/2/431.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.071498-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Adams M. J. , Antoniw J. F. , Kreuze J. . ( 2009; ). Virgaviridae: a new family of rod-shaped plant viruses. . Arch Virol 154:, 1967–1972. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Altschul S. F. , Madden T. L. , Schäffer A. A. , Zhang J. , Zhang Z. , Miller W. , Lipman D. J. . ( 1997; ). Gapped blast and psi-blast: a new generation of protein database search programs. . Nucleic Acids Res 25:, 3389–3402. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Atsumi G. , Nakahara K. S. , Wada T. S. , Choi S. H. , Masuta C. , Uyeda I. . ( 2012; ). Heterologous expression of viral suppressors of RNA silencing complements virulence of the HC-Pro mutant of clover yellow vein virus in pea. . Arch Virol 157:, 1019–1028. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Atsumi G. , Tomita R. , Kobayashi K. , Sekine K.-T. . ( 2013; ). Establishment of an agroinoculation system for broad bean wilt virus 2. . Arch Virol 158:, 1549–1554. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Burge S. W. , Daub J. , Eberhardt R. , Tate J. , Barquist L. , Nawrocki E. P. , Eddy S. R. , Gardner P. P. , Bateman A. . ( 2013; ). Rfam 11.0: 10 years of RNA families. . Nucleic Acids Res 41: (Database issue), D226–D232. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Card S. D. , Pearson M. N. , Clover G. R. G. . ( 2007; ). Plant pathogens transmitted by pollen. . Australas Plant Pathol 36:, 455. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Chomczynski P. , Sacchi N. . ( 1987; ). Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction. . Anal Biochem 162:, 156–159. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Crutzen F. , Kreit M. , Bragard C. . ( 2009; ). The beet virus Q coat protein readthrough domain is longer than previously reported, with two transmembrane domains. . J Gen Virol 90:, 754–758. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Dal Palù A. , Möhl M. , Will S. . ( 2010; ). A propagator for maximum weight string alignment with arbitrary pairwise dependencies. . In Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming (CP-2010), pp. 167–175. Heidelberg:: Springer;.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Dunoyer P. , Pfeffer S. , Fritsch C. , Hemmer O. , Voinnet O. , Richards K. E. . ( 2002; ). Identification, subcellular localization and some properties of a cysteine-rich suppressor of gene silencing encoded by peanut clump virus. . Plant J 29:, 555–567. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Hamada M. , Kiryu H. , Sato K. , Mituyama T. , Asai K. . ( 2009; ). Prediction of RNA secondary structure using generalized centroid estimators. . Bioinformatics 25:, 465–473. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Hull R. . ( 2013; ). Plant Virology, , 5th edn.. Waltham, MA:: Academic Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Imamura T. , Higuchi A. , Sekine K.-T. , Yamashita T. , Takahashi H. . ( 2014; ). High concentrations of sucrose induce overwintering bud formation in gentian plantlets cultured in vitro. . Plant Biotechnol (Tsukuba) 31:, 97–104. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Katoh K. , Kuma K. , Toh H. , Miyata T. . ( 2005; ). mafft version 5: improvement in accuracy of multiple sequence alignment. . Nucleic Acids Res 33:, 511–518. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Kobayashi Y. O. , Kobayashi A. , Hagiwara K. , Uga H. , Mikoshiba Y. , Naito T. , Honda Y. , Omura T. . ( 2005; ). Gentian mosaic virus: a new species in the genus Fabavirus . . Phytopathology 95:, 192–197. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Kobayashi K. , Tomita R. , Sakamoto M. . ( 2009; ). Recombinant plant dsRNA-binding protein as an effective tool for the isolation of viral replicative form dsRNA and universal detection of RNA viruses. . J Gen Plant Pathol 75:, 87–91. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Kobayashi K. , Atsumi G. , Iwadate Y. , Tomita R. , Chiba K.-I. , Akasaka S. , Nishihara M. , Takahashi H. , Yamaoka N. . & other authors ( 2013; ). Gentian Kobu-sho-associated virus: a tentative, novel double-stranded RNA virus that is relevant to gentian Kobu-sho syndrome. . J Gen Plant Pathol 79:, 56–63. . [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Koenig R. , Pleij C. W. , Beier C. , Commandeur U. . ( 1998; ). Genome properties of beet virus Q, a new furo-like virus from sugarbeet, determined from unpurified virus. . J Gen Virol 79:, 2027–2036.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Manohar S. K. , Guilley H. , Dollet M. , Richards K. , Jonard G. . ( 1993; ). Nucleotide sequence and genetic organization of peanut clump virus RNA 2 and partial characterization of deleted forms. . Virology 195:, 33–41. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Martín-Hernández A. M. , Baulcombe D. C. . ( 2008; ). Tobacco rattle virus 16-kilodalton protein encodes a suppressor of RNA silencing that allows transient viral entry in meristems. . J Virol 82:, 4064–4071. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Nakamura S. , Mano S. , Tanaka Y. , Ohnishi M. , Nakamori C. , Araki M. , Niwa T. , Nishimura M. , Kaminaka H. . & other authors ( 2010; ). Gateway binary vectors with the bialaphos resistance gene, bar, as a selection marker for plant transformation. . Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 74:, 1315–1319. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Penn O. , Privman E. , Ashkenazy H. , Landan G. , Graur D. , Pupko T. . ( 2010; ). guidance: a web server for assessing alignment confidence scores. . Nucleic Acids Res 38: (Web Server issue), W23–W28. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Sekine K.-T. , Tomita R. , Takeuchi S. , Atsumi G. , Saitoh H. , Mizumoto H. , Kiba A. , Yamaoka N. , Nishiguchi M. . & other authors ( 2012; ). Functional differentiation in the leucine-rich repeat domains of closely related plant virus-resistance proteins that recognize common Avr proteins. . Mol Plant Microbe Interact 25:, 1219–1229. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Sorescu D. A. , Möhl M. , Mann M. , Backofen R. , Will S. . ( 2012; ). carna–alignment of RNA structure ensembles. . Nucleic Acids Res 40: (Web Server issue), W49–W53. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Tamura K. , Peterson D. , Peterson N. , Stecher G. , Nei M. , Kumar S. . ( 2011; ). mega5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. . Mol Biol Evol 28:, 2731–2739. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Voinnet O. , Rivas S. , Mestre P. , Baulcombe D. . ( 2003; ). An enhanced transient expression system in plants based on suppression of gene silencing by the p19 protein of tomato bushy stunt virus. . Plant J 33:, 949–956. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Yambao M. L. M. , Yagihashi H. , Sekiguchi H. , Sekiguchi T. , Sasaki T. , Sato M. , Atsumi G. , Tacahashi Y. , Nakahara K. S. , Uyeda I. . ( 2008; ). Point mutations in helper component protease of clover yellow vein virus are associated with the attenuation of RNA-silencing suppression activity and symptom expression in broad bean. . Arch Virol 153:, 105–115. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Yelina N. E. , Savenkov E. I. , Solovyev A. G. , Morozov S. Y. , Valkonen J. P. T. . ( 2002; ). Long-distance movement, virulence, and RNA silencing suppression controlled by a single protein in hordei- and potyviruses: complementary functions between virus families. . J Virol 76:, 12981–12991. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.071498-0
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.071498-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplements

Supplementary Data



PDF

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error