1887

Abstract

On 23 March 2014, the World Health Organization issued its first communiqué on a new outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD), which began in December 2013 in (Forested Guinea), the eastern sector of the Republic of Guinea. Located on the Atlantic coast of West Africa, Guinea is the first country in this geographical region in which an outbreak of EVD has occurred, leaving aside the single case reported in Ivory Coast in 1994. Cases have now also been confirmed across Guinea as well as in the neighbouring Republic of Liberia. The appearance of cases in the Guinean capital, Conakry, and the transit of another case through the Liberian capital, Monrovia, presents the first large urban setting for EVD transmission. By 20 April 2014, 242 suspected cases had resulted in a total of 147 deaths in Guinea and Liberia. The causative agent has now been identified as an outlier strain of Zaire Ebola virus. The full geographical extent and degree of severity of the outbreak, its zoonotic origins and its possible spread to other continents are sure to be subjects of intensive discussion over the next months.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.067199-0
2014-08-01
2019-11-13
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/95/8/1619.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.067199-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Bah A.. ( 2014a; ). “Aucun cas d’Ebola confirmé à Labé, ni à Kamsar, ni à Boké”, dixit le gouvernement. . Guinéenews: Dernières Nouvelles de la Guinée par les Guinéens. http://guineenews.org/2014/04/aucun-cas-debola-confirme-a-labe-ni-a-kamsar-ni-a-boke-dixit-le-gouvernement/
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bah A.. ( 2014b; ). Impact de la fièvre Ebola sur l’économie en Guinée: des secteurs fortement touchés. . Guinéenews: Dernières Nouvelles de la Guinée par les Guinéens. http://guineenews.org/2014/04/impact-de-la-fievre-ebola-sur-leconomie-en-guinee-des-secteurs-fortement-touches/
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Baize S., Pannetier D., Oestereich L., Rieger T., Koivogui L., Magassouba N., Soropogui B., Sow M. S., Keïta S.. & other authors ( 2014; ). Emergence of Zaire Ebola Virus Disease in Guinea – preliminary report. . N Engl J Med 140416140039002. (Epub ahead of print). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. BBC ( 2014; ). Ebola: Liberia confirms cases, Senegal shuts border. . http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-26816438
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Biek R., Walsh P. D., Leroy E. M., Real L. A.. ( 2006; ). Recent common ancestry of Ebola Zaire virus found in a bat reservoir. . PLoS Pathog 2:, e90. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. CDC ( 2014; ). Bioterrorism agents/diseases. . http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/agentlist-category.asp
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Diallo B.. ( 2014; ). Ebola en Guinée: l’ONG Plan-Guinée craint une aggravation de l’épidémie.... Africaguinée. http://africaguinee.com/articles/2014/03/30/ebola-en-guinee-l-ong-plan-guinee-craint-une-aggravation-de-l-epidemie
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Dowell S. F., Mukunu R., Ksiazek T. G., Khan A. S., Rollin P. E., Peters C. J.. ( 1999; ). Transmission of Ebola hemorrhagic fever: a study of risk factors in family members, Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1995. Commission de Lutte contre les Epidémies à Kikwit. . J Infect Dis 179: (Suppl 1), S87–S91. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. FrontPageAfrica ( 2014; ). Liberia: Ebola manhunt – biker likely carrying virus on the run. . allAfrica. http://allafrica.com/stories/201404071825.html
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Grard G., Biek R., Muyembe Tamfum J. J., Fair J., Wolfe N., Formenty P., Paweska J., Leroy E.. ( 2011; ). Emergence of divergent Zaire Ebola virus strains in Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2007 and 2008. . J Infect Dis 204: (Suppl 3), S776–S784. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Guinéenews ( 2014; ). Ebola à Conakry: la contamination limitée aux membres d’une seule famille et à ceux qui les ont approchés. . Guinéenews: Dernières Nouvelles de la Guinée par les Guinéens. http://guineenews.org/2014/03/ebola-a-conakry-la-contamination-limitee-aux-membres-dune-seule-famille-et-a-ceux-qui-les-ont-approches/
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Legrand J., Grais R. F., Boelle P. Y., Valleron A. J., Flahault A.. ( 2007; ). Understanding the dynamics of Ebola epidemics. . Epidemiol Infect 135:, 610–621. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Leroy E. M., Kumulungui B., Pourrut X., Rouquet P., Hassanin A., Yaba P., Délicat A., Paweska J. T., Gonzalez J. P., Swanepoel R.. ( 2005; ). Fruit bats as reservoirs of Ebola virus. . Nature 438:, 575–576. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Marzi A., Feldmann H.. ( 2014; ). Ebola virus vaccines: an overview of current approaches. . Expert Rev Vaccines 13:, 521–531. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Mills C. E., Robins J. M., Lipsitch M.. ( 2004; ). Transmissibility of 1918 pandemic influenza. . Nature 432:, 904–906. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Nah V. M., Johnson O.. ( 2014; ). Liberia: Ebola kills woman at Duside Hospital in Firestone. . allAfrica. http://allafrica.com/stories/201404040742.html
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Oestereich L., Lüdtke A., Wurr S., Rieger T., Muñoz-Fontela C., Günther S.. ( 2014; ). Successful treatment of advanced Ebola virus infection with T-705 (favipiravir) in a small animal model. . Antiviral Res 105:, 17–21. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Paessler S., Walker D. H.. ( 2013; ). Pathogenesis of the viral hemorrhagic fevers. . Annu Rev Pathol 8:, 411–440. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Pattyn S., van der Groen G., Courteille G., Jacob W., Piot P.. ( 1977; ). Isolation of Marburg-like virus from a case of haemorrhagic fever in Zaire. . Lancet 309:, 573–574. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Rodriguez L. L., De Roo A., Guimard Y., Trappier S. G., Sanchez A., Bressler D., Williams A. J., Rowe A. K., Bertolli J.. & other authors ( 1999; ). Persistence and genetic stability of Ebola virus during the outbreak in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1995. . J Infect Dis 179: (Suppl 1), S170–S176. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Rowe A. K., Bertolli J., Khan A. S., Mukunu R., Muyembe-Tamfum J. J., Bressler D., Williams A. J., Peters C. J., Rodriguez L.. & other authors ( 1999; ). Clinical, virologic, and immunologic follow-up of convalescent Ebola hemorrhagic fever patients and their household contacts, Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Commission de Lutte contre les Epidémies à Kikwit. . J Infect Dis 179: (Suppl 1), S28–S35. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Tamura K., Stecher G., Peterson D., Filipski A., Kumar S.. ( 2013; ). mega6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0. . Mol Biol Evol 30:, 2725–2729. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Walsh P. D., Biek R., Real L. A.. ( 2005; ). Wave-like spread of Ebola Zaire. . PLoS Biol 3:, e371. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Wauquier N., Becquart P., Padilla C., Baize S., Leroy E. M.. ( 2010; ). Human fatal zaire ebola virus infection is associated with an aberrant innate immunity and with massive lymphocyte apoptosis. . PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:, e837. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. WHO ( 2014a; ). Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Guinea. Disease Outbreak News. . http://www.who.int/csr/don/2014_03_23_ebola/en/
    [Google Scholar]
  26. WHO ( 2014b; ). Ebola virus disease, West Africa – update (22 April). Disease Outbreak News. . http://www.who.int/csr/don/2014_04_22_ebola/en/
    [Google Scholar]
  27. WHO ( 2014c; ). Ebola virus disease, West Africa – update (10 April). Disease Outbreak News. . http://www.who.int/csr/don/2014_04_10_ebola/en/
    [Google Scholar]
  28. WHO ( 2014d; ). Ebola virus disease, West Africa – update (7 April). Disease Outbreak News. . http://www.who.int/csr/don/2014_04_07_ebola/en/
    [Google Scholar]
  29. WHO ( 2014e; ). Ebola virus disease, West Africa – update (17 April). Disease Outbreak News. . http://www.who.int/csr/don/2014_04_17_ebola/en/
    [Google Scholar]
  30. WHO ( 2014f; ). Ebola virus disease, Fact sheet No. 103. Disease Fact Sheets. . http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs103/en/
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.067199-0
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.067199-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error