1887

Abstract

Barkedji virus, named after the area of its first identification in Senegal, is a newly discovered flavivirus (FV), for which we propose the abbreviation BJV. In the present study, we report the first-time detection of BJV in mosquitoes in Israel in 2011 and determination of its almost complete polyprotein gene sequence. We characterized the BJV genome and defined putative mature proteins, conserved structural elements and potential enzyme motifs along the polyprotein precursor. By comparing polyproteins and individual proteins of BJV with several other FVs, a distant relationship of BJV to Nounane virus (NOUV), a recently described African FV, is demonstrated. Phylogenetic analysis of 55 selected flaviviral polyprotein gene sequences exhibits two major clusters, one made up of the classical three clades of FVs: mosquito-borne, tick-borne and those without known vectors. The other cluster exclusively contains so-called ‘insect-specific’ FVs, which do not replicate in vertebrate cells. Based on our phylogenetic analysis, BJV is related to other members of the mosquito-borne clade with yet unknown vertebrate hosts, such as NOUV, Donggang virus, Chaoyang virus and Lammi virus. However, with a maximum identity of only 54 % to NOUV, BJV represents a distinct new virus species.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.056200-0
2013-11-01
2019-10-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/94/11/2449.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.056200-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Adams S. C. , Broom A. K. , Sammels L. M. , Hartnett A. C. , Howard M. J. , Coelen R. J. , Mackenzie J. S. , Hall R. A. . ( 1995; ). Glycosylation and antigenic variation among Kunjin virus isolates. . Virology 206:, 49–56. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Allison S. L. , Schalich J. , Stiasny K. , Mandl C. W. , Heinz F. X. . ( 2001; ). Mutational evidence for an internal fusion peptide in flavivirus envelope protein E. . J Virol 75:, 4268–4275. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Ambrose R. L. , Mackenzie J. M. . ( 2011; ). A conserved peptide in West Nile virus NS4A protein contributes to proteolytic processing and is essential for replication. . J Virol 85:, 11274–11282. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bin H. , Grossman Z. , Pokamunski S. , Malkinson M. , Weiss L. , Duvdevani P. , Banet C. , Weisman Y. , Annis E. . & other authors ( 2001; ). West Nile fever in Israel 1999–2000: from geese to humans. . Ann N Y Acad Sci 951:, 127–142. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Cook S. , Moureau G. , Kitchen A. , Gould E. A. , de Lamballerie X. , Holmes E. C. , Harbach R. E. . ( 2012; ). Molecular evolution of the insect-specific flaviviruses. . J Gen Virol 93:, 223–234. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Firth A. E. , Atkins J. F. . ( 2009; ). A conserved predicted pseudoknot in the NS2A-encoding sequence of West Nile and Japanese encephalitis flaviviruses suggests NS1′ may derive from ribosomal frameshifting. . Virol J 6:, 14. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Firth A. E. , Blitvich B. J. , Wills N. M. , Miller C. L. , Atkins J. F. . ( 2010; ). Evidence for ribosomal frameshifting and a novel overlapping gene in the genomes of insect-specific flaviviruses. . Virology 399:, 153–166. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Gaunt M. W. , Sall A. A. , de Lamballerie X. , Falconar A. K. I. , Dzhivanian T. I. , Gould E. A. . ( 2001; ). Phylogenetic relationships of flaviviruses correlate with their epidemiology, disease association and biogeography. . J Gen Virol 82:, 1867–1876.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Gorbalenya A. E. , Koonin E. V. , Donchenko A. P. , Blinov V. M. . ( 1989; ). Two related superfamilies of putative helicases involved in replication, recombination, repair and expression of DNA and RNA genomes. . Nucleic Acids Res 17:, 4713–4730. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Hall R. A. , Khromykh A. A. , Mackenzie J. M. , Scherret J. H. , Khromykh T. I. , Mackenzie J. S. . ( 1999; ). Loss of dimerisation of the nonstructural protein NS1 of Kunjin virus delays viral replication and reduces virulence in mice, but still allows secretion of NS1. . Virology 264:, 66–75. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Huhtamo E. , Putkuri N. , Kurkela S. , Manni T. , Vaheri A. , Vapalahti O. , Uzcátegui N. Y. . ( 2009; ). Characterization of a novel flavivirus from mosquitoes in northern Europe that is related to mosquito-borne flaviviruses of the tropics. . J Virol 83:, 9532–9540. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Huhtamo E. , Moureau G. , Cook S. , Julkunen O. , Putkuri N. , Kurkela S. , Uzcátegui N. Y. , Harbach R. E. , Gould E. A. . & other authors ( 2012; ). Novel insect-specific flavivirus isolated from northern Europe. . Virology 433:, 471–478. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Johnson N. , Voller K. , Phipps L. P. , Mansfield K. , Fooks A. R. . ( 2012; ). Rapid molecular detection methods for arboviruses of livestock of importance to northern Europe. . J Biomed Biotechnol 2012:, 719402. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Junglen S. , Kopp A. , Kurth A. , Pauli G. , Ellerbrok H. , Leendertz F. H. . ( 2009; ). A new flavivirus and a new vector: characterization of a novel flavivirus isolated from uranotaenia mosquitoes from a tropical rain forest. . J Virol 83:, 4462–4468. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Kuno G. , Chang G.-J. J. , Tsuchiya K. R. , Karabatsos N. , Cropp C. B. . ( 1998; ). Phylogeny of the genus Flavivirus . . J Virol 72:, 73–83.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Lee J. S. , Grubaugh N. D. , Kondig J. P. , Turell M. J. , Kim H.-C. , Klein T. A. , O’Guinn M. L. . ( 2013; ). Isolation and genomic characterization of Chaoyang virus strain ROK144 from Aedes vexans nipponii from the Republic of Korea. . Virology 435:, 220–224. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Melian E. B. , Hinzman E. , Nagasaki T. , Firth A. E. , Wills N. M. , Nouwens A. S. , Blitvich B. J. , Leung J. , Funk A. . & other authors ( 2010; ). NS1′ of flaviviruses in the Japanese encephalitis virus serogroup is a product of ribosomal frameshifting and plays a role in viral neuroinvasiveness. . J Virol 84:, 1641–1647. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Orshan L. , Bin H. , Schnur H. , Kaufman A. , Valinsky A. , Shulman L. , Weiss L. , Mendelson E. , Pener H. . ( 2008; ). Mosquito vectors of West Nile fever in Israel. . J Med Entomol 45:, 939–947. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Rice C. M. , Lenches E. M. , Eddy S. R. , Shin S. J. , Sheets R. L. , Strauss J. H. . ( 1985; ). Nucleotide sequence of yellow fever virus: implications for flavivirus gene expression and evolution. . Science 229:, 726–733. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Rice C. M. , Strauss E. , Strauss J. . ( 1986; ). Structure of flavivirus genome. . In The Togaviridae and Flaviviridae, pp. 279–326. Edited by Schlesinger S. , Schlesinger M. . . NY:: Plenum;. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Scaramozzino N. , Crance J.-M. , Jouan A. , DeBriel D. A. , Stoll F. , Garin D. . ( 2001; ). Comparison of flavivirus universal primer pairs and development of a rapid, highly sensitive heminested reverse transcription-PCR assay for detection of flaviviruses targeted to a conserved region of the NS5 gene sequences. . J Clin Microbiol 39:, 1922–1927. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Scherret J. H. , Mackenzie J. S. , Khromykh A. A. , Hall R. A. . ( 2001; ). Biological significance of glycosylation of the envelope protein of Kunjin virus. . Ann N Y Acad Sci 951:, 361–363. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Shirato K. , Miyoshi H. , Goto A. , Ako Y. , Ueki T. , Kariwa H. , Takashima I. . ( 2004; ). Viral envelope protein glycosylation is a molecular determinant of the neuroinvasiveness of the New York strain of West Nile virus. . J Gen Virol 85:, 3637–3645. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Soumaré P. O. , Freire C. C. , Faye O. , Diallo M. , de Oliveira J. V. , Zanotto P. M. , Sall A. A. . ( 2012; ). Phylogeography of Rift Valley Fever virus in Africa reveals multiple introductions in Senegal and Mauritania. . PLoS ONE 7:, e35216. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Tamura K. , Peterson D. , Peterson N. , Stecher G. , Nei M. , Kumar S. . ( 2011; ). mega5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. . Mol Biol Evol 28:, 2731–2739. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Traoré-Lamizana M. , Zeller H. G. , Mondo M. , Hervy J. P. , Adam F. , Digoutte J. P. . ( 1994; ). Isolations of West Nile and Bagaza viruses from mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in central Senegal (Ferlo). . J Med Entomol 31:, 934–938.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Traoré-Lamizana M. , Fontenille D. , Diallo M. , Y. , Zeller H. G. , Mondo M. , Adam F. , Thonon J. , Maïga A. . ( 2001; ). Arbovirus surveillance from 1990 to 1995 in the Barkedji area (Ferlo) of Senegal, a possible natural focus of Rift Valley fever virus. . J Med Entomol 38:, 480–492. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Valle R. P. C. , Falgout B. . ( 1998; ). Mutagenesis of the NS3 protease of dengue virus type 2. . J Virol 72:, 624–632.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Vázquez A. , Ruiz S. , Herrero L. , Moreno J. , Molero F. , Magallanes A. , Sánchez-Seco M. P. , Figuerola J. , Tenorio A. . ( 2011; ). West Nile and Usutu viruses in mosquitoes in Spain, 2008-2009. . Am J Trop Med Hyg 85:, 178–181. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Weissenböck H. , Kolodziejek J. , Url A. , Lussy H. , Rebel-Bauder B. , Nowotny N. . ( 2002; ). Emergence of Usutu virus, an African mosquito-borne flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis virus group, central Europe. . Emerg Infect Dis 8:, 652–656. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Whiteman M. C. , Wicker J. A. , Kinney R. M. , Huang C. Y. H. , Solomon T. , Barrett A. D. T. . ( 2011; ). Multiple amino acid changes at the first glycosylation motif in NS1 protein of West Nile virus are necessary for complete attenuation for mouse neuroinvasiveness. . Vaccine 29:, 9702–9710. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Yoshii K. , Konno A. , Goto A. , Nio J. , Obara M. , Ueki T. , Hayasaka D. , Mizutani T. , Kariwa H. , Takashima I. . ( 2004; ). Single point mutation in tick-borne encephalitis virus prM protein induces a reduction of virus particle secretion. . J Gen Virol 85:, 3049–3058. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Yoshii K. , Igarashi M. , Ichii O. , Yokozawa K. , Ito K. , Kariwa H. , Takashima I. . ( 2012; ). A conserved region in the prM protein is a critical determinant in the assembly of flavivirus particles. . J Gen Virol 93:, 27–38. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.056200-0
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.056200-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error