1887

Abstract

Since 2001, severe outbreaks of disease associated with border disease virus (BDV) infection have been reported in Pyrenean chamois. The disease is characterized by variable degrees of cachexia, alopecia and neurological manifestations prior to death. The aim of this study was to investigate this disease under experimental conditions. To assess viral virulence, humoral immune response, dissemination and probable routes of transmission, seven chamois (five seronegative and two seropositive for BDV) were inoculated with a BDV isolated from a naturally infected chamois. A group of three chamois were maintained as uninfected controls. The five seronegative chamois became viraemic from day 2 post-inoculation (p.i.) until their death (three animals) or the end of the experiment (on day 34 p.i.) and developed neutralizing antibodies from day 18 p.i. until the end of the study. Continuous shedding of the virus was detected by RT-PCR in oral, nasal and rectal swabs in viraemic chamois from day 5 p.i. Despite none of the viraemic chamois showing obvious neurological signs, all of them had a non-suppurative meningoencephalitis as seen in naturally infected chamois. The two inoculated BDV-seropositive chamois did not become viraemic. This study confirms that BDV is the primary agent of the disease that has been affecting chamois populations in recent years in the Pyrenees and that previously acquired humoral immunity is protective.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.034595-0
2011-11-01
2019-12-14
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/92/11/2494.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.034595-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Arnal M. , Fernández-de-Luco D. , Riba L. , Maley M. , Gilray J. , Willoughby K. , Vilcek S. , Nettleton P. F. . ( 2004; ). A novel pestivirus associated with deaths in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica). . J Gen Virol 85:, 3653–3657. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bautista M. J. , Ruiz-Villamor E. , Salguero F. J. , Sánchez-Cordón P. J. , Carrasco L. , Gómez-Villamandos J. C. . ( 2002; ). Early platelet aggregation as a cause of thrombocytopenia in classical swine fever. . Vet Pathol 39:, 84–91. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Becher P. , Orlich M. , Shannon A. D. , Horner G. , König M. , Thiel H. J. . ( 1997; ). Phylogenetic analysis of pestiviruses from domestic and wild ruminants. . J Gen Virol 78:, 1357–1366.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bielefeldt-Ohmann H. , Tolnay A. E. , Reisenhauer C. E. , Hansen T. R. , Smirnova N. , Van Campen H. . ( 2008; ). Transplacental infection with non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhoea virus types 1b and 2: viral spread and molecular neuropathology. . J Comp Pathol 138:, 72–85.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Blas-Machado U. , Saliki J. T. , Duffy J. C. , Caseltine S. L. . ( 2004; ). Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2-induced meningoencephalitis in a heifer. . Vet Pathol 41:, 190–194. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Cabezón O. , Rosell R. , Sibila M. , Lavín S. , Marco I. , Segalés J. . ( 2010a; ). Experimental infection of pigs with Border disease virus isolated from Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica). . J Vet Diagn Invest 22:, 360–365. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Cabezón O. , Velarde R. , Rosell R. , Lavín S. , Segalés J. , Marco I. . ( 2010b; ). Experimental infection in lambs with a Border disease virus isolated from Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica). . Vet Rec 167:, 619–621. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Cabezón O. , Rosell R. , Velarde R. , Mentaberre G. , Casas-Díaz E. , Lavín S. , Marco I. . ( 2010c; ). Border disease virus shedding and detection in naturally infected Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica). . J Vet Diagn Invest 22:, 744–747. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Chappuis G. , Brun A. , Kato F. , Duffour R. , Durant M. . ( 1984; ). Isolation and characterization of a pestivirus from a leukopaenic enterocolitis outbreak in sheep from the Aveyron. . Épidémiol Santé Anim 6:, 117–118 (in French).
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Hilbe M. , Camenisch U. , Braun U. , Peterhans E. , Stalder H. , Zlinszky K. , Ehrensperger F. . ( 2009; ). Mucosal lesions in a sheep infected with the Border disease virus (BDV). . Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 151:, 391–396. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Hurtado A. , Aduriz G. , Gómez N. , Oporto B. , Juste R. A. , Lavin S. , Lopez-Olvera J. R. , Marco I. . ( 2004; ). Molecular identification of a new pestivirus associated with increased mortality in the Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) in Spain. . J Wildl Dis 40:, 796–800.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Løken T. . ( 1995; ). Border disease in sheep. . Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 11:, 579–595.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. López-Olvera J. R. , Marco I. , Montané J. , Casas-Díaz E. , Mentaberre G. , Lavín S. . ( 2009; ). Comparative evaluation of effort, capture and handling effects of drive nets to capture roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), Southern chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) and Spanish ibex (Capra pyrenaica). . Eur J Wildl Res 55:, 193–202. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Marco I. , Lopez-Olvera J. R. , Rosell R. , Vidal E. , Hurtado A. , Juste R. , Pumarola M. , Lavín S. . ( 2007; ). Severe outbreak of disease in the southern chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) associated with border disease virus infection. . Vet Microbiol 120:, 33–41. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Marco I. , Rosell R. , Cabezón O. , Mentaberre G. , Casas E. , Velarde R. , Lavín S. . ( 2009; ). Border disease virus among chamois, Spain. . Emerg Infect Dis 15:, 448–451. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Maxie M. G. , Youssef S. . ( 2007; ). Nervous system. . In Jubb, Kennedy and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals, , 5th edn., pp. 319–321. Edited by Maxie M. G. . . Philadelphia, PA:: Elsevier Saunders;.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Monies R. J. , Paton D. J. , Vilcek S. . ( 2004; ). Mucosal disease-like lesions in sheep infected with Border disease virus. . Vet Rec 155:, 765–769.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Nettleton P. F. , Gilray J. A. , Russo P. , Dlissi E. . ( 1998; ). Border disease of sheep and goats. . Vet Res 29:, 327–340.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. OIE ( 2011; ). Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals. . Available at: http://www.oie.int/en/international-standard-setting/terrestrial-manual/access-online/
  20. R Development Core Team ( 2010; ). A language and environment for statistical computing. . Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing;. www.R-project.org.
  21. Reed L. J. , Muench H. . ( 1938; ). A simple method of estimating fifty per cent endpoints. . Am J Epidemiol 27:, 493–497.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Thabti F. , Fronzaroli L. , Dlissi E. , Guibert J. M. , Hammami S. , Pepin M. , Russo P. . ( 2002; ). Experimental model of Border disease virus infection in lambs: comparative pathogenicity of pestiviruses isolated in France and Tunisia. . Vet Res 33:, 35–45. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Vilcek S. , Nettleton P. F. . ( 2006; ). Pestiviruses in wild animals. . Vet Microbiol 116:, 1–12. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Vilcek S. , Herring A. J. , Herring J. A. , Nettleton P. F. , Lowings J. P. , Paton D. J. . ( 1994; ). Pestiviruses isolated from pigs, cattle and sheep can be allocated into at least three genogroups using polymerase chain reaction and restriction endonuclease analysis. . Arch Virol 136:, 309–323. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Vilcek S. , Willoughby K. , Nettleton P. , Becher P. . ( 2010; ). Complete genomic sequence of a border disease virus isolated from Pyrenean chamois. . Virus Res 152:, 164–168. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Walz P. H. , Steficek B. A. , Baker J. C. , Kaiser L. , Bell T. G. . ( 1999; ). Effect of experimentally induced type II bovine viral diarrhea virus infection on platelet function in calves. . Am J Vet Res 60:, 1396–1401.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Wood S. N. . ( 2008; ). Fast stable direct fitting and smoothness selection for generalized additive models. . J R Stat Soc Series B Stat Methodol 70:, 495–518. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Zuur A. F. , Ieno E. N. , Walker N. J. , Saveliev A. A. , Smith G. M. . ( 2009; ). Mixed Effects Models and Extension in Ecology with R. New York:: Springer;.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.034595-0
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.034595-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error