Global epidemiological analysis is vital for implementing progressive regional foot-and-mouth disease control programmes. Here, we have generated VP1 region sequences for 55 Indian type A outbreak strains and have included complete VP1 sequences from 46 other countries to obtain a comprehensive global phylogeographical impression. A total of 26 regional genotypes within three continental topotypes, based on a 15 % nucleotide divergence cut-off criterion, could be identified. These genotypes correlated with distinct evolutionary lineages in the maximum-likelihood phylogeny. During the last decade, ten genotypes have been in circulation the world over and it was evident that no type A strain has transgressed the continental barriers during this period. A single genotype (genotype 18) within the Asia topotype has been circulating in India with neither any incursion nor any long distance movement of virus out of the country during the last ten years, although close genetic and epidemiological links between viruses from Bhutan and India were revealed.


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vol. , part 4, pp. 873–879

VP1 based ML tree corresponding to Fig. 2a, showing virus names against the branches.


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