Group C rotavirus (GCRV) is distributed worldwide as an enteric pathogen in humans and animals. However, to date, whole-genome sequences are available only for a human strain (Bristol) and a porcine strain (Cowden). To investigate the genetic diversity of human GCRVs, nearly full-length sequences of all 11 RNA segments were determined for human GCRVs detected recently in India (v508), Bangladesh (BS347), China (Wu82 and YNR001) and Japan (OH567 and BK0830) and analysed phylogenetically with sequence data for GCRVs published previously. All the RNA segments of human GCRV strains except for the VP3 gene showed high levels of conservation (>93 % nucleotide sequence identity, >92 % amino acid sequence identity), belonging to a single genetic cluster distinct from those of animal GCRVs. In contrast, the VP3 genes of human GCRVs could be discriminated into two clusters, designated M2 and M3, that were distinguished phylogenetically from those of porcine and bovine GCRVs (clusters M1 and M4, respectively). Between M2 and M3, amino acid sequence identity of the VP3 gene was 84.1–84.7 %, whereas high identities were observed within each cluster (92.3–97.6 % for M2, 98.2–99.3 % for M3). Sequence divergence among the four VP3 clusters was observed throughout the amino acid sequence except for conserved motifs, including those possibly related to enzyme functions of VP3. The presence of obvious genetic diversity only in the VP3 gene among human GCRVs suggested that either the M2 or M3 VP3 gene of human GCRVs might have been derived through reassortment from an animal GCRV or from an unidentified human GCRV strain belonging to a novel genogroup.


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vol. , part 2, pp. 361 - 369

Identities of VP7 (S1), VP4 (S2), VP6 (S3), VP1 (S4), VP2 (S5), NSP1 (S6), NSP2 (S7), NSP3 (S8), NSP4 (S9) and NSP5 (S10) nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences among human, porcine and bovine GCRVs.

Primers used for amplification of full-length individual genes of human GCRVs.

[PDF file of Supplementary Tables](144 KB)


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