Bacteriophage T4 is able to adjust its development to the growth parameters of the host cell. Here, we present evidence for the production of two different subpopulations of phage particles, which differ in their ability to infect starved cells. The ability of phage T4 to produce a fraction of virions unable to infect starved cells is linked to the functions of genes and , as well as . This may represent the adaptation of phage T4 in order to persist in unfavourable environmental conditions.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Abedon, S. T.(1992). Lysis of lysis-inhibited bacteriophage T4-infected cells. J Bacteriol 174, 8073–8080. [Google Scholar]
  2. Benz, W. C. & Berger, H.(1973). Selective allele loss in mixed infections with T4 bacteriophage. Genetics 73, 1–11. [Google Scholar]
  3. Carlson, K. & Kozinski, A. W.(1974). Nonreplicated DNA and DNA fragments in T4 r bacteriophage particles: phenotypic mixing of a phage protein. J Virol 13, 1274–1290. [Google Scholar]
  4. Conley, M. P. & Wood, W. B.(1975). Bacteriophage T4 whiskers: a rudimentary environment-sensing device. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 72, 3701–3705.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  5. Cummings, D. J., Chapman, V. A. & DeLong, S. S.(1969). The sedimentation and conformational variance among T-even bacteriophages. Virology 37, 94–108.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  6. Doermann, A. H. & Hill, M. B.(1953). Genetic structure of bacteriophage T4 as described by recombination studies of factors influencing plaque morphology. Genetics 38, 79–90. [Google Scholar]
  7. Edgar, R. S., Feynman, R. P., Klein, S., Lielausis, I. & Steinberg, C. M.(1962). Mapping experiments with r mutants of bacteriophage T4D. Genetics 47, 179–186. [Google Scholar]
  8. Hadas, H., Einav, M., Fishov, I. & Zaritsky, A.(1997). Bacteriophage T4 development depends on the physiology of its host Escherichia coli. Microbiology 143, 179–185.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  9. Hengge-Aronis, R.(2002). Stationary phase gene regulation: what makes an Escherichia coli promoter σS-selective? Curr Opin Microbiol 5, 591–595.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  10. Jensen, K. F.(1993). The Escherichia coli K-12 “wild types” W3110 and MG1655 have an rph frameshift mutation that leads to pyrimidine starvation due to low pyrE expression levels. J Bacteriol 175, 3401–3407. [Google Scholar]
  11. Kutter, E., Kellenberger, E., Carlson, K., Eddy, S., Neitzel, J., Messinger, L., North, J. & Guttman, B.(1994). Effects of bacterial growth condition and physiology on T4 infection. In Molecular Biology of Bacteriophage T4, pp. 406–418. Edited by Karam, J. D.. Washington, DC. : American Society for Microbiology. [Google Scholar]
  12. Leiman, P. G., Kanamaru, S., Mesyanzhinov, V. V., Arisaka, F. & Rossmann, M. G.(2003). Structure and morphogenesis of bacteriophage T4. Cell Mol Life Sci 60, 2356–2370.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  13. Łoś, M., Węgrzyn, G. & Neubauer, P.(2003). A role for bacteriophage T4 rI gene function in the control of phage development during pseudolysogeny and in slowly growing host cells. Res Microbiol 154, 547–552.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  14. Paddison, P., Abedon, S. T., Dressman, H. K., Gailbreath, K., Tracy, J., Mosser, E., Neitzel, J., Guttman, B. & Kutter, E.(1998). The roles of the bacteriophage T4 r genes in lysis inhibition and fine-structure genetics: a new perspective. Genetics 148, 1539–1550. [Google Scholar]
  15. Rutberg, B. & Rutberg, L.(1965). Role of superinfecting phage in lysis inhibition with phage T4 in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol 90, 891–894. [Google Scholar]
  16. Sambrook, J., Fritsh, E. F. & Maniatis, T.(1989).Molecular Cloning: a Laboratory Manual. Cold Spring Harbor, NY. : Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error