(TSWV) causes severe economic losses in many crops worldwide and often overcomes resistant cultivars used for disease control. Comparison of nucleotide and amino acid sequences suggested that tomato resistance conferred by the gene can be overcome by the amino acid substitution C to Y at position 118 (C118Y) or T120N in the TSWV movement protein, NSm. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that substitution C118Y has occurred independently three times in the studied isolates by convergent evolution, whereas the substitution T120N was a unique event. Analysis of rates of non-synonymous and synonymous changes at individual codons showed that substitution C118Y was positively selected.


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Layout of the M segment (about 5.8 kb) of (TSWV). Coding regions, represented as grey boxes, are NSm, encoded in the positive sense (rightward arrow), and the precursor G /G , encoded in the negative sense (leftward arrow). Non-coding regions are the 5′-UTR, the intergenic region (IR) and the 3′-UTR.


Sequence alignments of the M segment regions of TSWV isolates unable to infect resistant tomato cultivars with gene ( non-infecting; SNI) and able to infect these cultivars ( resistance-breaking; SRB). [PDF](100 KB)

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