We have used high-throughput Illumina sequencing to identify novel recombinants between (DWV) and (VDV-1), which accumulate to higher levels than DWV in both honeybees and mites. The recombinants, VDV-1 and VDV-1, exhibit crossovers between the 5′-UTR and the regions encoding the structural (capsid) and non-structural viral proteins. This implies that the genomes are modular and that each region may evolve independently, as demonstrated in human enteroviruses. Individual honeybee pupae were infected with a mixture of observed recombinants and DWV. A strong correlation was observed between VDV-1 levels in honeybee pupae and associated mites, suggesting that this recombinant, with a DWV-derived 5′-UTR and non-structural protein region flanking a VDV-1-derived capsid-encoding region, is better adapted to transmission between and honeybees than the parental DWV or a recombinant bearing the VDV-1-derived 5′-UTR (VDV-1).


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vol. , part 1, pp. 156 - 161

Oligonucleotides used in this study. [PDF](53 KB)


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