Recent advances in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine design have resulted in induction of strong CD4 T-cell proliferative and polyfunctional cytokine responses, which are also characteristic for long-term non-progressing (LTNP) HIV-infected individuals. However, limited information is available on the persistence of these responses after infection. Results from studies in non-human primates indicate that vaccine-induced immune responses are partially maintained upon viral infection and differ from the responses seen in non-vaccinated animals that typically progress to disease. However, it is unclear how these partially preserved responses compare to immune responses that are acquired naturally by LTNP animals. In this study, immune-response profiles were compared between vaccinated animals that, upon SHIV challenge, became infected but were able to control virus replication, and a group of animals having spontaneous control of this viral infection. Both groups were found to develop very similar immune responses with regard to induction of CD4 and CD8 T-cell polyfunctional cytokine responses, proliferative capacity and cytotoxic capacity, as measured by a standard Cr release assay and more direct and CTL assays. Hence, vaccinated animals that become infected, but control infection, appear to establish immune responses that are similar to those elicited by long-term non-progressors.


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vol. , part 12, pp. 2974–2984

Example of the CTL assay.

MHC class I typing (Mamu-A and -B) was conducted by sequencing full-length cDNAs.

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