De Brazza’s monkeys () are non-human primates (NHP) living in Equatorial Africa from South Cameroon through the Congo-Basin to Uganda. As most of the NHP living in sub-Saharan Africa, they are naturally infected with their own simian lentivirus, SIVdeb. Previous studies confirmed this infection for De Brazza’s from East Cameroon and Uganda. In this report, we studied the genetic diversity of SIVdeb in De Brazza’s monkeys from different geographical areas in South Cameroon and from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). SIVdeb strains from east, central and western equatorial Africa form a species-specific monophyletic lineage. Phylogeographic clustering was observed among SIVdeb strains from Cameroon, the DRC and Uganda, but also among primates from distinct areas in Cameroon. These observations suggest a longstanding virus–host co-evolution. SIVdeb prevalence is high in wild De Brazza’s populations and thus represents a current risk for humans exposed to these primates in central Africa.


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