This study investigated the impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on genital human papillomavirus (HPV) in heterosexual couples. More HIV-positive men and women had genital HPV compared with HIV-negative men (77 vs 49 %; <0.001) and women (74 vs 36 %; <0.001). More men and women with partners who were HPV positive had HPV genital infection compared with those with HPV-negative partners (for men, 72 % compared with 40 %; <0.001). Men with HIV-positive female partners were at greater risk of high-risk HPV and low-risk HPV (LR HPV) infection compared with men with HIV-negative female partners. This risk increased with decreasing CD4 count {≥350 ml: odds ratio [OR ], 2.37 [95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.47–3.83]; <350 ml: OR, 3.02 [95 % CI, 1.86–4.9]}. Conversely, the risk of HPV of any type was not found to differ between women with an HIV-positive or HIV-negative male partner. In men, HIV infection and female partner HIV-positive status were both associated with a higher risk of type-specific HPV concordance with their sexual partner, though the associations were not significant for LR HPV. In women, HIV infection and low CD4 count were significantly associated with increased risk of type-specific HPV concordance, but male partner HIV-positive status was not significantly associated with this concordance. In conclusion, male genital HPV prevalence and type-specific sharing were influenced by their own HIV-positive status and that of their female partner. In contrast, female genital HPV prevalence and HPV type-specific sharing were determined by their own HIV-positive status and not by that of their male partner.


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