1887

Abstract

Active transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) surveillance in small ruminants across Europe was implemented in 2002 following the epizootic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Here, we report the potential emergence of classical scrapie in Portugal, in a background of enzootic atypical scrapie. Between 2003 and 2008, 375 459 small ruminants were screened in total, with 328 animals confirmed positive for NOR98 atypical scrapie. During this period, the prevalence rate of atypical scrapie for all years combined was 0.0874 % across the country. In this scenario, classical scrapie emerged as a single outbreak in 2008, with 12 identified cases. In contrast to other European countries, where classical scrapie has been enzootic for decades, these data indicate that, in Portugal, atypical scrapie is the predominant form of TSE. The findings reported here will have implications for the control of classical scrapie in Portugal, namely in terms of keeping the country free of enzootic classical scrapie.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.018879-0
2010-06-01
2019-09-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/91/6/1646.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.018879-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Arsac, J. N., Andreoletti, O., Bilheude, J. M., Lacroux, C., Benestad, S. & Baron, T. ( 2007; ). Similar biochemical signatures and prion protein genotypes in atypical scrapie and Nor98 cases, France, and Norway. Emerg Infect Dis 13, 58–65.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Arsac, J. N., Bétemps, D., Morignat, E., Féraudet, C., Bencsik, A., Aubert, D., Grassi, J. & Baron, T. ( 2009; ). Transmissibility of atypical scrapie in ovine transgenic mice: major effects of host prion protein expression and donor prion genotype. PLoS One 4, e7300 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Benestad, S. L., Sarradin, P., Thu, B., Schönheit, J., Tranulis, M. A. & Bratberg, B. ( 2003; ). Cases of scrapie with unusual features in Norway and designation of a new type, Nor98. Vet Rec 153, 202–208.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Benestad, S. L., Arsac, J.-N., Goldmann, W. & Noremark, M. ( 2008; ). Atypical/Nor98 scrapie: properties of the agent, genetics and epidemiology. Vet Res 39, 19 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Buschmann, A., Biacabe, A. G., Ziegler, U., Bencsik, A., Madec, J. Y., Erhardt, G., Lühken, G., Baron, T. & Groschup, M. H. ( 2004; ). Atypical scrapie cases in Germany and France are identified by discrepant reaction patterns in BSE rapid tests. J Virol Methods 117, 27–36.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. De Bosschere, H., Roels, S., Benestad, S. L. & Vanopdenbosch, E. ( 2004; ). Scrapie case similar to Nor98 diagnosed in Belgium via active surveillance. Vet Rec 155, 707–708.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Espinosa, J. C., Herva, M. E., Andréoletti, O., Padilla, D., Lacroux, C., Cassard, H., Lantier, I., Castilla, J. & Torres, J. M. ( 2009; ). Transgenic mice expressing porcine prion protein resistant to classical scrapie but susceptible to sheep bovine spongiform encephalopathy and atypical scrapie. Emerg Infect Dis 15, 1214–1221.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Everest, S. J., Thorne, L., Barnicle, D. A., Edwards, J. C., Elliott, H., Jackman, R. & Hope, J. ( 2006; ). Atypical prion protein in sheep brain collected during the British scrapie-surveillance programme. J Gen Virol 87, 471–477.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Fediaevsky, A., Morignat, E., Ducrot, C. & Calavas, D. ( 2009; ). A case–control study on the origin of atypical scrapie in sheep, France. Emerg Infect Dis 15, 710–718.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Gavier-Widén, D., Nöremark, M., Benestad, S., Simmons, M., Renström, L., Bratberg, B., Elvander, M. & Segerstad, C. H. ( 2004; ). Recognition of the Nor98 variant of scrapie in the Swedish sheep population. J Vet Diagn Invest 16, 562–567.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Gonzalez, L., Martin, S., Begara-McGorum, I., Hunter, N., Houston, F., Simmons, M. & Jeffrey, M. ( 2002; ). Effects of agent strain and host genotype on PrP accumulation in the brain of sheep naturally and experimentally affected with scrapie. J Comp Pathol 126, 17–29.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Groschup, M. H., Lacroux, C., Buschmann, A., Lühken, G., Mathey, J., Eiden, M., Lugan, S., Hoffmann, C., Espinosa, J. C. & other authors ( 2007; ). Classic scrapie in sheep with the ARR/ARR prion genotype in Germany and France. Emerg Infect Dis 13, 1201–1207.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Hope, J., Wood, S. C., Birkett, C. R., Chong, A., Bruce, M. E., Cairns, D., Goldmann, W., Hunter, N. & Bostock, C. J. ( 1999; ). Molecular analysis of ovine prion protein identifies similarities between BSE and an experimental isolate of natural scrapie, CH1641. J Gen Virol 80, 1–4.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Hopp, P., Omer, M. K. & Heier, B. T. ( 2006; ). A case–control study of scrapie Nor98 in Norwegian sheep flocks. J Gen Virol 87, 3729–3736.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Le Dur, A., Béringue, V., Andréoletti, O., Reine, F., Laï, T. L., Baron, T., Bratberg, B., Vilotte, J. L., Sarradin, P. & other authors ( 2005; ). A newly identified type of scrapie agent can naturally infect sheep with resistant PrP genotypes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102, 16031–16036.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Luhken, G., Buschmann, A., Brandt, H., Eiden, M., Groschup, M. & Erhardt, G. ( 2007; ). Epidemiological and genetical differences between classical and atypical scrapie cases. Vet Res 38, 65–79.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. McIntyre, K. M., del Rio Vilas, V. J. & Gubbins, S. ( 2008; ). No temporal trends in the prevalence of atypical scrapie in British sheep, 2002–2006. BMC Vet Res 4, 13 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Moore, S. J., Simmons, M., Chaplin, M. & Spiropoulos, J. ( 2008; ). Neuroanatomical distribution of abnormal prion protein in natural occuring atypical scrapie cases in Great Britain. Acta Neuropathol 116, 547–559.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Nentwig, A., Oervermann, A., Heim, D., Botteron, C., Zellweger, C., Drögemüller, C., Zurbriggen, A. & Seuberlich, T. ( 2007; ). Diversity in neuroanatomical distribution of abnormal prion protein in atypical scrapie. PLoS Pathog 3, e82 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Onnasch, H., Gunn, H. M., Bradshaw, B. J., Benestad, S. L. & Bassett, H. F. ( 2004; ). Two Irish cases of scrapie resembling Nor98. Vet Rec 155, 636–637.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Orge, L., Galo, A., Sepúlveda, N., Simas, J. P. & Pires, M. ( 2003; ). Scrapie genetic susceptibility in Portuguese sheep breeds. Vet Rec 153, 508
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Orge, L., Galo, A., Machado, C., Lima, C., Ochoa, C., Silva, J., Ramos, M. & Simas, J. P. ( 2004; ). Identification of putative atypical scrapie in sheep in Portugal. J Gen Virol 85, 3487–3491.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Ryder, S. J., Spencer, Y. I., Bellerby, P. J. & March, S. A. ( 2001; ). Immunohistochemical detection of PrP in the medulla oblongata of sheep: the spectrum of staining in normal and scrapie-affected sheep. Vet Rec 148, 7–13.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Simmons, M. M., Konold, T., Simmons, H. A., Spencer, Y. I., Lockey, R., Spiropoulos, J., Everitt, S. & Clifford, D. ( 2007; ). Experimental transmission of atypical scrapie to sheep. BMC Vet Res 3, 20 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Wood, J. L., McGill, I. S., Done, S. H. & Bradley, R. ( 1997; ). Neuropathology of scrapie: a study of the distribution patterns of brain lesions in 222 cases of natural scrapie in sheep, 1982–1991. Vet Rec 140, 167–174.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.018879-0
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.018879-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error