A/Hong Kong/213/97 (HK213; H5N1), isolated from a human, binds to both avian- and human-type receptors, due to a haemagglutinin (HA) mutation probably acquired during adaptation to humans. Duck passage of this virus conferred lethality in ducks. Sequence analyses of the duck-passaged virus revealed that its HA gene reverted back to one recognizing only avian-type receptors, and consequently it bound human tissue to a lesser extent. This finding suggests that viruses with human-type receptor specificity are unlikely to be maintained in waterfowl, unlike those with the human-type PB2 mutation, such as H5N1 viruses of the Qinghai Lake lineage.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Chen, H., Smith, G. J., Zhang, S. Y., Qin, K., Wang, J., Li, K. S., Webster, R. G., Peiris, J. S. & Guan, Y.(2005). Avian flu: H5N1 virus outbreak in migratory waterfowl. Nature 436, 191–192.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  2. Chen, H., Li, Y., Li, Z., Shi, J., Shinya, K., Deng, G., Qi, Q., Tian, G., Fan, S. & other authors(2006). Properties and dissemination of H5N1 viruses isolated during an influenza outbreak in migratory waterfowl in western China. J Virol 80, 5976–5983.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  3. Fornek, J. L., Gillim-Ross, L., Santos, C., Carter, V., Ward, J. M., Cheng, L. I., Proll, S., Katze, M. G. & Subbarao, K.(2009). A single-amino-acid substitution in a polymerase protein of an H5N1 influenza virus is associated with systemic infection and impaired T-cell activation in mice. J Virol 83, 11102–11115.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  4. Gambaryan, A., Tuzikov, A., Pazynina, G., Bovin, N., Balish, A. & Klimov, A.(2006). Evolution of the receptor binding phenotype of influenza A (H5) viruses. Virology 344, 432–438.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  5. Hatta, M., Gao, P., Halfmann, P. & Kawaoka, Y.(2001). Molecular basis for high virulence of Hong Kong H5N1 influenza A viruses. Science 293, 1840–1842.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  6. Hoffmann, E., Stech, J., Guan, Y., Webster, R. G. & Perez, D. R.(2001). Universal primer set for the full-length amplification of all influenza A viruses. Arch Virol 146, 2275–2289.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  7. Macken, C., Lu, H., Goodman, J. & Boykin, L.(2001). The value of a database in surveillance and vaccine selection. In Options for the Control of Influenza IV, pp. 103–106. Edited by A. D. M. E. Osterhaus, N. Cox & A. W. Hampson. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.
  8. Neumann, G., Watanabe, T., Ito, H., Watanabe, S., Goto, H., Gao, P., Hughes, M., Perez, D. R., Donis, R. & other authors(1999). Generation of influenza A viruses entirely from cloned cDNAs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96, 9345–9350.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  9. Peiris, J. S., Yu, W. C., Leung, C. W., Cheung, C. Y., Ng, W. F., Nicholls, J. M., Ng, T. K., Chan, K. H., Lai, S. T. & other authors(2004). Re-emergence of fatal human influenza A subtype H5N1 disease. Lancet 363, 617–619.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  10. Shinya, K., Hatta, M., Yamada, S., Takada, A., Watanabe, S., Halfmann, P., Horimoto, T., Neumann, G., Kim, J. H. & other authors(2005). Characterization of a human H5N1 influenza A virus isolated in 2003. J Virol 79, 9926–9932.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  11. Shortridge, K. F., Zhou, N. N., Guan, Y., Gao, P., Ito, T., Kawaoka, Y., Kodihalli, S., Krauss, S., Markwell, D. & other authors(1998). Characterization of avian H5N1 influenza viruses from poultry in Hong Kong. Virology 252, 331–342.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  12. Sturm-Ramirez, K. M., Ellis, T., Bousfield, B., Bissett, L., Dyrting, K., Rehg, J. E., Poon, L., Guan, Y., Peiris, M. & Webster, R. G.(2004). Reemerging H5N1 influenza viruses in Hong Kong in 2002 are highly pathogenic to ducks. J Virol 78, 4892–4901.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error