Adenovirus (Ad) type 7 can cause severe infection, including pneumonia, in military recruits and children. The initial inflammation is a neutrophilic interstitial infiltration with neutrophilic alveolitis. Subsequently, monocytes become evident and, finally, there is a predominantly lymphocytic infiltrate. We have established that Ad7 infection of epithelial cells stimulates release of the neutrophil chemotaxin interleukin (IL)-8, and have extended these studies to a human lung tissue model. Here, we studied cytokine responses to Ad7 in human alveolar macrophages (HAM) and our human lung tissue model. Both ELISA and RNase-protection assay (RPA) data demonstrated that, upon Ad7 infection, IP-10 and MIP-1/ are released from HAM. IP-10 and MIP-1/ protein levels were induced 2- and 3-fold, respectively, in HAM 24 h after Ad7 infection. We then investigated induction of specific cytokines in human lung tissue by RPA and ELISA. The results showed that IL-8 and IL-6 were induced 8 h after infection and, by 24 h, levels of IL-8, IL-6, MIP-1/ and MCP-1 were all increased. IP-10, a monocyte and lymphocyte chemokine, was also induced 30-fold, but only 24 h after infection. Immunohistochemistry staining confirmed that IL-8 was only released from the epithelial cells of lung slices and not from macrophages. IP-10 was secreted from both macrophages and epithelial cells. Moreover, full induction of IP-10 is likely to require participation and cooperation of both epithelial cells and macrophages in intact lung. Understanding the cytokine and chemokine induction during Ad7 infection may lead to novel ways to modulate the response to this pathogen.


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vol. , part 5, pp. 1155–1163

Cellular source of IL-8 induction by Ad7.

Cellular source of IP-10 induction by Ad7.

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