Serological screening of sera from orang-utans demonstrated a high percentage of sera that cross-reacted with antigens of the polyomavirus (PyV) simian virus 40. Analysis of archival DNA samples from 71 Bornean and eight Sumatran orang-utans with a broad-spectrum PCR assay resulted in the detection of PyV infections in 11 animals from both species. Sequence analysis of the amplicons revealed considerable differences between the PyVs from Bornean and Sumatran orang-utans. The genome from two PyVs, one from each species, was therefore amplified and sequenced. Both viral genomes revealed a characteristic PyV architecture, but lacked an obvious agnogene. Neighbour-joining analysis positioned the viruses in a large cluster together with viruses from bats, bovines, rodents and several primate PyVs from chimpanzees, African green monkeys, squirrel monkeys and the human Merkel cell PyV.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Allander, T., Andreasson, K., Gupta, S., Bjerkner, A., Bogdanovic, G., Persson, M. A. A., Dalianis, T., Ramqvist, T. & Andersson, B.(2007). Identification of a third human polyomavirus. J Virol 81, 4130–4136.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  2. Axthelm, M. K., Koralnik, I. J., Dang, X., Wuthrich, C., Rohne, D., Stillman, I. E. & Letvin, N. L.(2004). Meningoencephalitis and demyelination are pathologic manifestations of primary polyomavirus infection in immunosuppressed rhesus monkeys. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 63, 750–758. [Google Scholar]
  3. Chretien, F., Boche, D., Lorin de la Grandmaison, G., Ereau, T., Mikol, J., Hurtrel, M., Hurtrel, B. & Gray, F.(2000). Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and oligodendroglioma in a monkey co-infected by simian immunodeficiency virus and simian virus 40. Acta Neuropathol 100, 332–336.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  4. Feng, H., Shuda, M., Chang, Y. & Moore, P. S.(2008). Clonal integration of a polyomavirus in human Merkel cell carcinoma. Science 319, 1096–1100.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  5. Gaynor, A. M., Nissen, M. D., Whiley, D. M., Mackay, I. M., Lambert, S. B., Wu, G., Brennan, D. C., Storch, G. A., Sloots, T. P. & Wang, D.(2007). Identification of a novel polyomavirus from patients with acute respiratory tract infections. PLoS Pathog 3, e64[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  6. Horvath, C. J., Simon, M. A., Bergsagel, D. J., Pauley, D. R., King, N. W., Garcea, R. L. & Ringler, D. J.(1992). Simian virus 40-induced disease in rhesus monkeys with simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Pathol 140, 1431–1440. [Google Scholar]
  7. Jiang, M., Abend, J. R., Johnson, S. F. & Imperiale, M. J.(2009). The role of polyomaviruses in human disease. Virology 384, 266–273.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  8. Johne, R., Enderlein, D., Nieper, H. & Muller, H.(2005). Novel polyomavirus detected in the feces of a chimpanzee by nested broad-spectrum PCR. J Virol 79, 3883–3887.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  9. Khalili, K., White, M. K., Sawa, H., Nagashima, K. & Safak, M.(2005). The agnoprotein of polyomaviruses: a multifunctional auxiliary protein. J Cell Physiol 204, 1–7.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  10. Koliaskina, G. I.(1963). Virological and serological data on latent infection caused by Ob40 (Sv40) virus in macaca rhesus monkeys. Vopr Virusol 29, 450–452. [Google Scholar]
  11. Li, P. P., Nakanishi, A., Tran, M. A., Salazar, A. M., Liddington, R. C. & Kasamatsu, H.(2000). Role of simian virus 40 Vp1 cysteines in virion infectivity. J Virol 74, 11388–11393.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  12. Liddington, R. C., Yan, Y., Moulai, J., Sahli, R., Benjamin, T. L. & Harrison, S. C.(1991). Structure of simian virus 40 at 3.8-A resolution. Nature 354, 278–284.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  13. Martini, F., Corallini, A., Balatti, V., Sabbioni, S., Pancaldi, C. & Tognon, M.(2007). Simian virus 40 in humans. Infect Agent Cancer 2, 13[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  14. Murata, H., Teferedegne, B., Sheng, L., Lewis, A. M., Jr & Peden, K.(2008). Identification of a neutralization epitope in the VP1 capsid protein of SV40. Virology 381, 116–122.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  15. Neu, U., Woellner, K., Gauglitz, G. & Stehle, T.(2008). Structural basis of GM1 ganglioside recognition by simian virus 40. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105, 5219–5224.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  16. Pertea, M., Lin, X. & Salzberg, S. L.(2001). GeneSplicer: a new computational method for splice site prediction. Nucleic Acids Res 29, 1185–1190.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  17. Pipas, J. M.(1992). Common and unique features of T antigens encoded by the polyomavirus group. J Virol 66, 3979–3985. [Google Scholar]
  18. Rogozin, I. B. & Milanesi, L.(1997). Analysis of donor splice sites in different eukaryotic organisms. J Mol Evol 45, 50–59.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  19. Simon, M. A., Chalifoux, L. V. & Ringler, D. J.(1992). Pathologic features of SIV-induced disease and the association of macrophage infection with disease evolution. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 8, 327–337.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  20. Simon, M. A., Ilyinskii, P. O., Baskin, G. B., Knight, H. Y., Pauley, D. R. & Lackner, A. A.(1999). Association of simian virus 40 with a central nervous system lesion distinct from progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in macaques with AIDS. Am J Pathol 154, 437–446.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  21. Stehle, T. & Harrison, S. C.(1997). High-resolution structure of a polyomavirus VP1–oligosaccharide complex: implications for assembly and receptor binding. EMBO J 16, 5139–5148.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  22. Stehle, T., Gamblin, S. J., Yan, Y. & Harrison, S. C.(1996). The structure of simian virus 40 refined at 3.1 A resolution. Structure 4, 165–182.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  23. Sullivan, C. S., Cantalupo, P. & Pipas, J. M.(2000). The molecular chaperone activity of simian virus 40 large T antigen is required to disrupt Rb–E2F family complexes by an ATP-dependent mechanism. Mol Cell Biol 20, 6233–6243.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  24. Sweet, B. H. & Hilleman, M. R.(1960). The vacuolating virus, S.V. 40. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 105, 420–427.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  25. Tamura, K., Dudley, J., Nei, M. & Kumar, S.(2007).mega4: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (mega) software version 4.0. Mol Biol Evol 24, 1596–1599.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  26. Valis, J. D., Newell, N., Reissig, M., Malherbe, H., Kaschula, V. R. & Shah, K. V.(1977). Characterization of SA12 as a simian virus 40-related papovavirus of chacma baboons. Infect Immun 18, 247–252. [Google Scholar]
  27. Verschoor, E. J., Groenewoud, M. J., Fagrouch, Z., Kewalapat, A., van Gessel, S., Kik, M. J. & Heeney, J. L.(2008a). Molecular characterization of the first polyomavirus from a New World primate: squirrel monkey polyomavirus. J Gen Virol 89, 130–137.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  28. Verschoor, E. J., Niphuis, H., Fagrouch, Z., Christian, P., Sasnauskas, K., Pizarro, M. C. & Heeney, J. L.(2008b). Seroprevalence of SV40-like polyomavirus infections in captive and free-ranging macaque species. J Med Primatol 37, 196–201.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  29. Warren, K. S., Verschoor, E. J., Langenhuijzen, S., Heriyanto, Swan, R. A., Vigilant, L. & Heeney, J. L.(2001). Speciation and intrasubspecific variation of Bornean orangutans, Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus. Mol Biol Evol 18, 472–480.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  30. zur Hausen, H. & Gissmann, L.(1979). Lymphotropic papovaviruses isolated from African green monkey and human cells. Med Microbiol Immunol 167, 137–153.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...


vol. , part 3, pp. 653–658

Alignment of PyV VP1 nucleotide sequences obtained from Bornean and Sumatran orang-utans.

Comparison of full-length VP1 genes obtained from Bornean and Sumatran orang-utans.

Alignment of full-length VP1 proteins obtained from Bornean and Sumatran orang-utans.

[ Single PDF file] (475 KB)


Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error