The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-norovirus (NoV), -sapovirus (SaV) and -Tulane virus (TV) antibodies in rhesus macaques of the Tulane National Primate Research Center and to evaluate the antigenic relationship between these viruses. A high prevalence of NoV-binding (51–61 %) and SaV-binding (50–56 %) antibodies and TV-neutralizing (69 %) antibodies were detected. Serum samples obtained during a human NoV outbreak and a multivalent anti-NoV hyperimmune serum were not able to neutralize TV infectivity. Conversely, low levels of cross-reactivity between the prototype TV and NoVs, but not between the TV and SaVs were detected by ELISA. These data indicate the preservation of some cross-reactive B-cell epitopes between the rhesus and human caliciviruses (CVs). The high prevalence of human and rhesus CV-specific serum antibodies suggests the frequent exposure of colony macaques to enteric CVs including the possibility of CV transmission between human and non-human primate hosts.


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