Crimean–Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a lethal disease caused by Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV). It is one of the most widespread medically significant tick-borne pathogens, with a distribution that coincides well with the geographical occurrence of its tick vector, . Sporadic outbreaks of CCHF have previously been recognized in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Europe but, in the 21st century, outbreaks have become more frequent in former Yugoslavia, Turkey and Iran. It has been suggested that CCHFV is a migrating pathogen, but it is not clear to what extent. We have, for the first time, analysed the worldwide migration pattern of CCHFV. Our results showed that Turkey may be a donor in Europe, towards both the east and the west, while the United Arab Emirates acted as a donor in the Middle East, and China was found to be the origin for genotype 2. Finally, we showed that migration of CCHFV was unrestricted between Iran and Pakistan. Considering the distribution and coincidence of the tick vector with CCHFV and CCHF, and the fact that the tick vector is present in western Europe, future outbreaks may extend to include hitherto-naïve areas, suggesting that increased surveillance and geographical mapping of this lethal pathogen are needed.


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vol. , part 1, pp. 199–207

GenBank accession numbers and countries of origin for sequences in the 450 nt S-segment dataset

GenBank accession numbers and countries of origin for sequences in the 220 nt S-segment dataset

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