In tobacco and , limited cross-protection against cucumber mosaic virus strain Fny (Fny-CMV) was provided by prior inoculation with a deletion mutant lacking the 2b silencing-suppressor protein gene (Fny-CMVΔ2b). Cross-protection by Fny-CMVΔ2b did not result from induction of systemic RNA silencing. We investigated whether protection occurs through induction of localized RNA silencing by using plants harbouring mutations in genes encoding the dicer-like (DCL) endoribonucleases 2, 3 and 4 involved in antiviral silencing. In wild-type (Col-0) plants, Fny-CMVΔ2b was symptomless and cross-protected against Fny-CMV infection. Cross-protection by Fny-CMVΔ2b against Fny-CMV infection was not abolished in , or mutant plants and was strongest in double mutants, although in these plants and in mutants, Fny-CMVΔ2b replicated to high levels and induced strong symptoms. The results suggest that Fny-CMVΔ2b/Fny-CMV cross-protection is not completely dependent on RNA silencing and also involves competition between these viruses.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Culver, J. N.(1996). Tobamovirus cross protection using a potexvirus vector. Virology 226, 228–235.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  2. Deleris, A., Gallego-Bartolome, J., Bao, J., Kasschau, K. D., Carrington, J. C. & Voinnet, O.(2006). Hierarchical action and inhibition of plant Dicer-like proteins in antiviral defence. Science 313, 68–71.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  3. de Zoeten, G. A. & Fulton, R. W.(1975). Understanding generates possibilities. Phytopathology 65, 221–222. [Google Scholar]
  4. Diaz-Pendon, J. A. & Ding, S. W.(2008). Direct and indirect roles of viral suppressors of RNA silencing in pathogenesis. Annu Rev Phytopathol 46, 303–326.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  5. Diaz-Pendon, J. A., Li, F., Li, W.-X. & Ding, S.-W.(2007). Suppression of antiviral silencing by cucumber mosaic virus 2b protein in Arabidopsis is associated with drastically reduced accumulation of three classes of viral small interfering RNAs. Plant Cell 19, 2053–2063.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  6. Dietrich, C., Al Abdallah, Q., Lintl, L., Pietruszka, A. & Maiss, E.(2007). A chimeric plum pox virus shows reduced spread and cannot compete with its parental wild-type viruses in a mixed infection. J Gen Virol 88, 2846–2851.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  7. Gallitelli, D., Vovlas, C., Martelli, G., Montasser, M. S., Tousignant, M. E. & Kaper, J. M.(1991). Satellite-mediated protection of tomato against cucumber mosaic virus: II. Field test under natural epidemic conditions in southern Italy. Plant Dis 75, 93–95.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  8. Gal-On, A. & Shiboleth, Y. M.(2006). Cross-protection. In Natural Resistance Mechanisms of Plants to Viruses, pp. 261–288. Edited by G. Loebenstein & J. P. Carr. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer.
  9. García-Arenal, F., Fraile, A. & Malpica, J. M.(2001). Variability and genetic structure of plant virus populations. Annu Rev Phytopathol 39, 157–186.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  10. Gerber, M. & Sarkar, S.(1989). The coat protein of tobacco mosaic virus does not play a significant role for cross-protection. J Phytopathol 124, 323–331.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  11. Hull, R.(2002).Matthews' Plant Virology, 4th edn. London: Academic Press.
  12. Hull, R. & Plaskitt, A.(1970). Electron microscopy on the behaviour of two strains of alfalfa mosaic virus in mixed infections. Virology 42, 773–776.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  13. Jridi, C., Martin, J.-F., Marie-Jeanne, V., Labonne, G. & Blanc, S.(2006). Distinct viral populations differentiate and evolve independently in a single perennial host plant. J Virol 80, 2349–2357.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  14. Koo, J. C., Asurmendi, S., Bick, J., Woodford-Thomas, T. & Beachy, R. N.(2004). Ecdysone agonist-inducible expression of a coat protein gene from tobacco mosaic virus confers viral resistance in transgenic Arabidopsis. Plant J 37, 439–448.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  15. Lewsey, M., Surrette, M., Robertson, F., Ziebell, H., Choi, S., Ryu, K. H., Canto, T., Palukaitis, P., Payne, T. & other authors(2009). The role of the Cucumber mosaic virus 2b protein in viral movement and symptom induction. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 22, 642–652.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  16. Lu, B., Stubbs, G. & Culver, J. N.(1998). Coat protein interactions involved in tobacco mosaic tobamovirus cross-protection. Virology 248, 188–198.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  17. Manfre, A. J. & Simon, A. E.(2008). Importance of coat protein and RNA silencing in satellite RNA/virus interactions. Virology 379, 161–167.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  18. McKinney, H. H.(1929). Mosaic diseases in the Canary Islands, West Africa and Gibraltar. J Agric Res 39, 557–578. [Google Scholar]
  19. Montasser, M. S., Tousignant, M. E. & Kaper, J. M.(1991). Satellite-mediated protection of tomato against cucumber mosaic virus: I. Greenhouse experiments and simulated epidemic conditions in the field. Plant Dis 75, 86–92.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  20. Niblett, C. L., Dickson, E., Fernow, K. H., Horst, R. K. & Zaitlin, M.(1978). Cross protection among four viroids. Virology 91, 198–203.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  21. Qu, F., Ye, X. & Morris, T. J.(2008).Arabidopsis DRB4, AGO1, AGO7 and RDR6 participate in a DCL4-initiated antiviral RNA silencing pathway negatively regulated by DCL1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105, 14732–14737.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  22. Ratcliff, F., Harrison, B. D. & Baulcombe, D. C.(1997). A similarity between viral defense and gene silencing in plants. Science 276, 1558–1560.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  23. Ratcliff, F. G., MacFarlane, S. A. & Baulcombe, D. C.(1999). Gene silencing without DNA. RNA-mediated cross-protection between viruses. Plant Cell 11, 1207–1216.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  24. Sayama, H., Sato, T., Kominato, M., Natsuaki, T. & Kaper, J. M.(1993). Field testing of a satellite-containing attenuated strain of cucumber mosaic virus for tomato protection in Japan. Phytopathology 83, 405–410.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  25. Sayama, H., Kominato, M., Ubukata, M. & Sato, T.(2001). Three-year risk assessment of the practical application of cross-protection in processing tomato fields using an attenuated cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) strain containing an ameliorative satellite RNA. Acta Hortic 542, 47–53. [Google Scholar]
  26. Sherwood, J. L.(1987). Mechanisms of cross-protection between plant virus strains. In Plant Resistance to Viruses, pp. 136–150. Edited by D. Evered & S. Harnett. Chichester, UK: Wiley.
  27. Sherwood, J. L. & Fulton, R. W.(1982). The specific involvement of coat protein in tobacco mosaic virus cross protection. Virology 119, 150–158.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  28. Takahashi, T., Sugawara, T., Yamatsuta, T., Isogai, M., Natsuaki, T. & Yoshikawa, N.(2007). Analysis of the spatial distribution of identical and two distinct virus populations differently labeled with cyan and yellow fluorescent proteins in coinfected plants. Phytopathology 97, 1200–1206.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  29. Takeshita, M., Shigemune, N., Kikuhara, K., Furuya, N. & Takanami, Y.(2004). Spatial analysis for exclusive interactions between subgroups I and II of Cucumber mosaic virus in cowpea. Virology 328, 45–51.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  30. Tien, P. & Wu, G. S.(1991). Satellite RNA for the biocontrol of plant disease. Adv Virus Res 39, 321–339. [Google Scholar]
  31. Zaitlin, M.(1976). Viral cross-protection: more understanding is needed. Phytopathology 66, 382–383.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  32. Ziebell, H.(2008).Mechanisms of Cross-Protection (CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources 3, no. 49). http://www.cababstractsplus.org/cabreviews/index.asp
  33. Ziebell, H., Payne, T., Berry, J. O., Walsh, J. A. & Carr, J. P.(2007). A cucumber mosaic virus mutant lacking the 2b counter-defence protein gene provides protection against wild-type strains. J Gen Virol 88, 2862–2871.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...


vol. , part 9, pp. 2288–2292

Symptoms in cross-protection experiments using Fny-CMV and Fny-CMVΔ2b in mutant and triple mutant .

Typical Fny-CMV- and Fny-CMVΔ2b-induced symptoms in wild-type and double mutant .

[ Single PDF file] (1.2 MB)

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error