1887

Abstract

The burden of rabies in Africa is estimated at 24 000 human deaths year, almost all of which result from infection with dog rabies viruses (RABV). To investigate the evolutionary dynamics of RABV in western and central Africa, 92 isolates sampled from 27 African countries over 29 years were collected and sequenced. This revealed that RABV currently circulating in dogs in this region fell into a single lineage designated ‘Africa 2’. A detailed analysis of the phylogeographical structure of this Africa 2 lineage revealed strong population subdivision at the country level, with only limited movement of virus among localities, including a possible east-to-west spread across Africa. In addition, Bayesian coalescent analysis suggested that the Africa 2 lineage was introduced into this region of Africa only recently (probably <200 years ago), in accordance with the timescale of expanding European colonial influence and urbanization, and then spread relatively slowly, perhaps occupying the entire region in a 100 year period.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.007765-0
2009-04-01
2019-11-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/90/4/783.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.007765-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Bourhy, H., Kissi, B. & Tordo, N. ( 1993; ). Molecular diversity of the Lyssavirus genus. Virology 194, 70–81.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bourhy, H., Kissi, B., Audry, L., Smreczak, M., Sadkowska-Todys, M., Kulonen, K., Tordo, N., Zmudzinski, J. F. & Holmes, E. C. ( 1999; ). Ecology and evolution of rabies virus in Europe. J Gen Virol 80, 2545–2557.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bourhy, H., Cowley, J. A., Larrous, F., Holmes, E. C. & Walker, P. J. ( 2005; ). Phylogenetic relationships among rhabdoviruses inferred using the L polymerase gene. J Gen Virol 86, 2849–2858.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bourhy, H., Reynes, J. M., Dunham, E. J., Dacheux, L., Larrous, F., Huong, V. T., Xu, G., Yan, J., Miranda, M. E. & Holmes, E. C. ( 2008; ). The origin and phylogeography of dog rabies virus. J Gen Virol 89, 2673–2681.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Crowder, M. ( 1990; ). History of French West Africa until independence. In Africa South of the Sahara 1990. Edited by O. Crowder, R. Crowder & M. Crowder. London: Europa Publications.
  6. David, D., Hughes, G. J., Yakobson, B. A., Davidson, I., Un, H., Aylan, O., Kuzmin, I. V. & Rupprecht, C. E. ( 2007; ). Identification of novel canine rabies virus clades in the Middle East and North Africa. J Gen Virol 88, 967–980.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Davis, P. L., Rambaut, A., Bourhy, H. & Holmes, E. C. ( 2007; ). The evolutionary dynamics of canid and mongoose rabies virus in southern Africa. Arch Virol 152, 1251–1258.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Delmas, O., Holmes, E. C., Talbi, C., Larrous, F., Dacheux, L., Bouchier, C. & Bourhy, H. ( 2008; ). Genomic diversity and evolution of the lyssaviruses. PLoS One 3, e2057 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Dodet, B., Adjogoua, E. V., Aguemon, A. R., Amadou, O. H., Atipo, A. L., Baba, B. A., Bara Ada, S., Boumandouki, P., Bourhy, H. & other authors ( 2008; ). Fighting rabies in Africa: the Africa Rabies Expert Bureau (AfroREB). Vaccine 26, 6295–6298.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Drummond, A. J. & Rambaut, A. ( 2007; ). beast: Bayesian evolutionary analysis by sampling trees. BMC Evol Biol 7, 214 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Durr, S., Naissengar, S., Mindekem, R., Diguimbye, C., Niezgoda, M., Kuzmin, I., Rupprecht, C. E. & Zinsstag, J. ( 2008; ). Rabies diagnosis for developing countries. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2, e206 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Fevre, E. M., Bronsvoort, B. M., Hamilton, K. A. & Cleaveland, S. ( 2006; ). Animal movements and the spread of infectious diseases. Trends Microbiol 14, 125–131.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Gould, A. R., Hyatt, A. D., Lunt, R., Kattenbelt, J. A., Hengstberger, S. & Blacksell, S. D. ( 1998; ). Characterisation of a novel lyssavirus isolated from Pteropid bats in Australia. Virus Res 54, 165–187.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Hampson, K., Dushoff, J., Bingham, J., Bruckner, G., Ali, Y. H. & Dobson, A. ( 2007; ). Synchronous cycles of domestic dog rabies in sub-Saharan Africa and the impact of control efforts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104, 7717–7722.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Holmes, E. C., Woelk, C. H., Kassis, R. & Bourhy, H. ( 2002; ). Genetic constraints and the adaptive evolution of rabies virus in nature. Virology 292, 247–257.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Kissi, B., Tordo, N. & Bourhy, H. ( 1995; ). Genetic polymorphism in the rabies virus nucleoprotein gene. Virology 209, 526–537.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Kissi, B., Badrane, H., Audry, L., Lavenu, A., Tordo, N., Brahimi, M. & Bourhy, H. ( 1999; ). Dynamics of rabies virus quasispecies during serial passages in heterologous hosts. J Gen Virol 80, 2041–2050.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Knobel, D. L., Cleaveland, S., Coleman, P. G., Fevre, E. M., Meltzer, M. I., Miranda, M. E., Shaw, A., Zinsstag, J. & Meslin, F. X. ( 2005; ). Re-evaluating the burden of rabies in Africa and Asia. Bull World Health Organ 83, 360–368.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Kuzmin, I. V., Hughes, G. J., Botvinkin, A. D., Orciari, L. A. & Rupprecht, C. E. ( 2005; ). Phylogenetic relationships of Irkut and West Caucasian bat viruses within the Lyssavirus genus and suggested quantitative criteria based on the N gene sequence for lyssavirus genotype definition. Virus Res 111, 28–43.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Nel, L. H. & Rupprecht, C. E. ( 2007; ). Emergence of lyssaviruses in the Old World: the case of Africa. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 315, 161–193.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Sacramento, D., Badrane, H., Bourhy, H. & Tordo, N. ( 1992; ). Molecular epidemiology of rabies virus in France: comparison with vaccine strains. J Gen Virol 73, 1149–1158.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Smith, J. S., Yager, P. A. & Orciari, L. A. ( 1993; ). Rabies in wild and domestic carnivores of Africa: epidemiological and historical associations determined by limited sequence analysis. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 60, 307–314.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Swanepoel, R., Barnard, B. J., Meredith, C. D., Bishop, G. C., Bruckner, G. K., Foggin, C. M. & Hubschle, O. J. ( 1993; ). Rabies in southern Africa. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 60, 325–346.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Swofford, D. L. ( 2003; ). paup*: Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (and other methods), version 4.0b10. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
  25. Windiyaningsih, C., Wilde, H., Meslin, F. X., Suroso, T. & Widarso, H. S. ( 2004; ). The rabies epidemic on Flores Island, Indonesia (1998–2003). J Med Assoc Thai 87, 1389–1393.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.007765-0
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.007765-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplements

vol. , part 4, pp. 783 – 791

Isolates of RABV used for phylogenetic analysis [ PDF] (149 KB)



PDF

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error