1887

Abstract

Defective interfering particles (DIPs) are virus-like particles that arise during virus growth, fail to grow in the absence of virus, and replicate at the expense of virus during co-infections. The inhibitory effects of DIPs on virus growth are well established, but little is known about how DIPs influence their own growth. Here vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and its DIPs were used to co-infect BHK cells, and the effect of DIP dose on virus and DIP production was measured using a yield-reduction assay. The resulting dose–response data were used to fit and evaluate mathematical models that employed different assumptions. Our analysis supports a multiple-hit process where DIPs inhibit or promote virus and DIP production, depending on dose. Specifically, three regimes of co-infection were apparent: (i) low DIP – where both virus and DIPs are amplified, (ii) medium DIP – where amplification of both virus and DIPs is inhibited, and (iii) high DIP – with limited recovery of virus production and further inhibition of DIP growth. In addition, serial-passage infections enabled us to estimate the frequency of DIP generation during virus amplification. Our combined experiments and models provide a means to understand better how DIPs quantitatively impact the growth of viruses and the spread of their infections.

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2009-04-01
2019-11-13
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