Understanding the diversity of henipaviruses and related viruses is important in determining the viral ecology within flying-fox populations and assessing the potential threat posed by these agents. This study sought to identify the abundance and diversity of previously unknown paramyxoviruses (UPVs) in Australian flying-fox species (, , and ) and in the Christmas Island species . Using a degenerative reverse transcription-PCR specific for the L gene of known species of the genus and two closely related paramyxovirus genera and , we identified an abundance and diversity of previously UPVs, with a representative 31 UPVs clustering in eight distinct groups (100 UPVs/495 samples). No new henipaviruses were identified. The findings were consistent with a hypothesis of co-evolution of paramyxoviruses and their flying-fox hosts. Quantification of the degree of co-speciation between host and virus (beyond the scope of this study) would strengthen this hypothesis.


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