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Abstract

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRSV) is an enveloped single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus and one of the main pathogens that causes the most significant economical losses in the swine-producing countries. PRRSV is currently divided into two distinct species, PRRSV-1 and PRRSV-2. The PRRSV virion envelope is composed of four glycosylated membrane proteins and three non-glycosylated envelope proteins. Previous work has suggested that PRRSV-linked glycans are critical structural components for virus assembly. In addition, it has been proposed that PRRSV glycans are implicated in the interaction with host cells and critical for virus infection. In contrast, recent findings showed that removal of N-glycans from PRRSV does not influence virus infection of permissive cells. Thus, there are not sufficient evidences to indicate compellingly that N-glycans present in the PRRSV envelope play a direct function in viral infection. To gain insights into the role of N-glycosylation in PRRSV infection, we analysed the specific contribution of the envelope protein-linked N-glycans to infection of permissive cells. For this purpose, we used a novel strategy to modify envelope protein-linked N-glycans that consists of production of monoglycosylated PRRSV and viral glycoproteins with different glycan states. Our results showed that removal or alteration of N-glycans from PRRSV affected virus infection. Specifically, we found that complex N-glycans are required for an efficient infection in cell cultures. Furthermore, we found that presence of high mannose type glycans on PRRSV surface is the minimal requirement for a productive viral infection. Our findings also show that PRRSV-1 and PRRSV-2 have different requirements of N-glycan structure for an optimal infection. In addition, we demonstrated that removal of N-glycans from PRRSV does not affect viral attachment, suggesting that these carbohydrates played a major role in regulating viral entry. In agreement with these findings, by performing immunoprecipitation assays and colocalization experiments, we found that N-glycans present in the viral envelope glycoproteins are not required to bind to the essential viral receptor CD163. Finally, we found that the presence of N-glycans in CD163 is not required for PRRSV infection.

Funding
This study was supported by the:
  • National Institute of Food and Agriculture (Award 2023-67015-40731)
    • Principle Award Recipient: AlbertoBrandariz-Nuñez
  • This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. This article was made open access via a Publish and Read agreement between the Microbiology Society and the corresponding author’s institution.
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2024-05-22
2024-06-19
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