1887

Abstract

Macaque-tropic HIV-1 (HIV-1mt) variants have been developed to establish preferable primate models that are advantageous in understanding HIV-1 infection pathogenesis and in assessing the preclinical efficacy of novel prevention/treatment strategies. We previously reported that a CXCR4-tropic HIV-1mt, MN4Rh-3, efficiently replicates in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of cynomolgus macaques homozygous for TRIMCyp (CMs). However, the CMs challenged with MN4Rh-3 displayed low viral loads during the acute infection phase and subsequently exhibited short-term viremia. These virological phenotypes differed from those observed in most HIV-1-infected people. Therefore, further development of the HIV-1mt variant was needed. In this study, we first reconstructed the MN4Rh-3 clone to produce a CCR5-tropic HIV-1mt, AS38. In addition, serial passages allowed us to produce a highly adapted AS38-derived virus that exhibits high viral loads (up to approximately 10 copies ml) during the acute infection phase and prolonged periods of persistent viremia (lasting approximately 16 weeks postinfection) upon infection of CMs. Whole-genome sequencing of the viral genomes demonstrated that the emergence of a unique 15-nt deletion within the gene was associated with adaptation. The deletion resulted in a significant increase in Vpr protein expression but did not affect Vif-mediated antagonism of antiretroviral APOBEC3s, suggesting that Vpr is important for HIV-1mt adaptation to CMs. In summary, we developed a novel CCR5-tropic HIV-1mt that can induce high peak viral loads and long-term viremia and exhibits increased Vpr expression in CMs.

Keyword(s): AIDS , APOBEC3 , cynomolgus macaque , HIV-1 , vif and vpr
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2022-10-07
2024-06-21
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