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Abstract

Arboviruses are medically important arthropod-borne viruses that cause a range of diseases in humans from febrile illness to arthritis, encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever. Given their transmission cycles, these viruses face the challenge of replicating in evolutionarily divergent organisms that can include ticks, flies, mosquitoes, birds, rodents, reptiles and primates. Furthermore, their cell attachment receptor utilization may be affected by the opposing needs for generating high and sustained serum viremia in vertebrates such that virus particles are efficiently collected during a hematophagous arthropod blood meal but they must also bind sufficiently to cellular structures on divergent organisms such that productive infection can be initiated and viremia generated. Sulfated polysaccharides of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) groups, primarily heparan sulfate (HS), have been identified as cell attachment moieties for many arboviruses. Original identification of GAG binding as a phenotype of arboviruses appeared to involve this attribute arising solely as a consequence of adaptation of virus isolates to growth in cell culture. However, more recently, naturally circulating strains of at least one arbovirus, eastern equine encephalitis, have been shown to bind HS efficiently and the GAG binding phenotype continues to be associated with arbovirus infection in published studies. If GAGs are attachment receptors for many naturally circulating arboviruses, this could lead to development of broad-spectrum antiviral therapies through blocking of the virus–GAG interaction. This review summarizes the available data for GAG/HS binding as a phenotype of naturally circulating arbovirus strains emphasizing the importance of avoiding tissue culture amplification and artifactual phenotypes during their isolation.

Funding
This study was supported by the:
  • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (Award T32 AI049820)
    • Principle Award Recipient: MariaD.H. Alcorn
  • Defense Threat Reduction Agency (Award HDTRA1-15-1-0047)
    • Principle Award Recipient: WilliamB Klimstra
  • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (Award R01 AI141646)
    • Principle Award Recipient: WilliamB Klimstra
  • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (Award R01 AI095436)
    • Principle Award Recipient: WilliamB Klimstra
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/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/jgv.0.001726
2022-02-22
2022-05-18
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