1887

Abstract

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread globally; recognition of immune responses to this virus will be crucial for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) control, prevention and treatment. We comprehensively analysed IgG and IgA antibody responses to the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (N), spike protein domain 1 (S1) and envelope protein (E) in: SARS-CoV-2-infected patient, healthy, historical and pre-epidemic samples, including patients’ medical, epidemiological and diagnostic data, virus-neutralizing capability and kinetics. N-specific IgG and IgA are the most reliable diagnostic targets for infection. Serum IgG levels correlate to IgA levels. Half a year after infection, anti-N and anti-S1 IgG decreased, but sera preserved virus-inhibitory potency; thus, testing for IgG may underestimate the protective potential of antibodies. Historical and pre-epidemic sera did not inhibit SARS-CoV-2, thus its circulation before the pandemic and a protective role from antibodies pre-induced by other coronaviruses cannot be confirmed by this study

Funding
This study was supported by the:
  • narodowe centrum badań i rozwoju (Award SZPITALE-JEDNOIMIENNE/48/2020)
    • Principle Award Recipient: WojciechWitkiewicz
  • narodowe centrum nauki (Award 2018/29/B/NZ6/01659)
    • Principle Award Recipient: KrystynaDąbrowska
  • This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The Microbiology Society waived the open access fees for this article.
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/jgv.0.001692
2021-11-24
2021-12-03
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/102/11/jgv001692.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/jgv.0.001692&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Salajegheh Tazerji S, Magalhaes Duarte P, Rahimi P, Shahabinejad F, Dhakal S. Transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to animals: an updated review. J Transl Med 2020; 18:358 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Oude Munnink BB, Sikkema RS, Nieuwenhuijse DF, Molenaar RJ, Munger E. Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 on mink farms between humans and mink and back to humans. Science 2020; 371:172–177 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Forni D, Cagliani R, Clerici M, Sironi M. Molecular Evolution of Human Coronavirus Genomes. Trends Microbiol 2017; 25:35–48 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Giovanetti M, Benedetti F, Campisi G, Ciccozzi A, Fabris S et al. Evolution patterns of SARS-CoV-2: Snapshot on its genome variants. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021; 538:88–91 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Oran DP, Topol EJ. Prevalence of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infection: A narrative review. Ann Intern Med 2020; 173:362–367 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Boechat JL, Chora I, Morais A, Delgado L. The immune response to SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 immunopathology - Current perspectives. Pulmonology 2021; 27:423–437 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Abdel-Moneim AS, Abdelwhab EM, Memish ZA. Insights into SARS-CoV-2 evolution, potential antivirals, and vaccines. Virology 2021; 558:1–12 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Azkur AK, Akdis M, Azkur D, Sokolowska M, van de Veen W et al. Immune response to SARS-COV-2 and mechanisms of immunopathological changes in covid-19. Allergy 2020; 75:1564–1581 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. De Sanctis JB, Garcia AH, Moreno D, Hajduch M. Coronavirus infection: An immunologists’ perspective. Scand J Immunol 2021; 93:e13043 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Ke Z, Oton J, Qu K, Cortese M, Zila V et al. Structures and distributions of SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins on intact virions. Nature 2020; 588:498–502 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Wang MY, Zhao R, Gao LJ, Gao XF, Wang DP et al. SARS-CoV-2: Structure, biology, and structure-based therapeutics dBiology, and Structure-Based Therapeutics Development. Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2020; 10:587269 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Dutta NK, Mazumdar K, Gordy JT. The nucleocapsid pnucleocapsid protein of sars-cov-2: a target for vaccine dtarget for vaccine development. J Virol 2020; 94:20
    [Google Scholar]
  13. van de Leemput J, Han Z. Understanding individual SARS-CoV-2 proteins for targeted drug development against COVID-19. Mol Cell Biol 2021; 41:e0018521 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Murgolo N, Therien AG, Howell B, Klein D, Koeplinger K et al. SARS-CoV-2 tropism, entry, replication, and propagation: Considerations for drug discovery and development. PLoS Pathog 2021; 17:e1009225 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Brochot E, Demey B, Touze A, Belouzard S, Dubuisson J et al. Anti-spike, anti-nucleocapsid and neutralizing antibodies in sars-cov-2 inpatients and asymptomatic iAnti-nucleocapsid and Neutralizing Antibodies in SARS-CoV-2 Inpatients and Asymptomatic Individuals. Front Microbiol 2020; 11:584251 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Peacock TP, Penrice-Randal R, Hiscox JA, Barclay WS. SARS-CoV-2 one year on: evidence for ongoing viral adaptation. J Gen Virol 2021; 102:001584 [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Qiu M, Shi Y, Guo Z, Chen Z, He R et al. Antibody responses to individual proteins of SARS coronavirus and their neutralization activities. Microbes Infect 2005; 7:882–889 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Buchholz UJ, Bukreyev A, Yang L, Lamirande EW, Murphy BR et al. Contributions of the structural proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus to protective immunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2004; 101:9804–9809 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. To KKW, Tsang OT, Leung WS, Tam AR, Wu TC et al. Temporal profiles of viral load in posterior oropharyngeal saliva samples and serum antibody responses during infection by SARS-CoV-2: an observational cohort study. Lancet Infect Dis 2020; 20:565–574 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Yaqinuddin A. Cross-immunity between respiratory coronaviruses may limit COVID-19 fatalities. Med Hypotheses 2020; 144:110049 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Ma Z, Li P, Ikram A, Pan Q. Does cross-neutralization of sars-cov-2 only relate to high pathogenic coronaviruses. Trends Immunol 2020; 41:851–853 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Jiang S, Hillyer C, Du L. Neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and other human coronaviruses. Trends Immunol 2020; 41:355–359 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Kissler SM, Tedijanto C, Goldstein E, Grad YH, Lipsitch M. Projecting the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 through the postpandemic period. Science 2020; 368:860–868 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Miura K, Orcutt AC, Muratova OV, Miller LH, Saul A et al. Development and characterization of a standardized ELISA including a reference serum on each plate to detect antibodies induced by experimental malaria vaccines. Vaccine 2008; 26:193–200 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Miura K, Takashima E, Deng B, Tullo G, Diouf A et al. Functional comparison of Plasmodium falciparum transmission-blocking vaccine candidates by the standard membrane-feeding assay. Infect Immun 2013; 81:4377–4382 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Cheng MP, Yansouni CP, Basta NE, Desjardins M, Kanjilal S et al. Serodiagnostics for severe acute respiratory syndrome-related cSevere Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Related Coronavirus 2: A narrative rNarrative Review. Ann Intern Med 2020; 173:450–460 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. McAndrews KM, Dowlatshahi DP, Dai J, Becker LM, Hensel J et al. Heterogeneous antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor binding domain and nucleocapsid with implications for COVID-19 immunity. JCI Insight 2020; 5:18 [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Liu L, Wang P, Nair MS, Yu J, Rapp M. Potent neutralizing antibodies against multiple epitopes on SARS-CoV-2 spike. Nature 2020; 584:450–456 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Wong NA, Saier MH. The Sars-coronavirus infection cycle: A survey of viral membrane proteins, their functional interactions and pathogenesis. Int J Mol Sci 2021; 22:1308 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Xiang T, Liang B, Fang Y, Lu S, Li S. Declining levels of neutralizing antibodies against sars-cov-2 in convalescent covid-19 patients one year post symptom onset. Front Immunol 2021; 12: [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Wang P, Liu L, Nair MS, Yin MT, Luo Y. SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody responses are more robust in patients with severe disease. Emerg Microbes Infect 2020; 9:2091–2093 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/jgv.0.001692
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/jgv.0.001692
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplements

Supplementary material 1

PDF

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error