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Abstract

Senecavirus A (SVA) is a picornavirus that circulates in swine populations worldwide causing vesicular disease (VD) in affected animals. Here we developed a reverse genetics system for SVA based on the well-characterized wild-type SVA strain SD15-26 (wt SVA SD15-26). The full-length cDNA genome of SVA was cloned into a plasmid under a T7 RNA polymerase promoter. Following transcription, the genomic viral RNA was transfected into BHK-21 cells and rescue of infectious virus (rSVA SD15-26) was shown by inoculation of highly susceptible H1299 cells. characterization of the rSVA SD15-26 showed similar replication properties and protein expression levels as the wt SVA SD15-26. A pathogenesis study was conducted in 15-week-old finishing pigs to evaluate the pathogenicity and infection dynamics of the rSVA SD15-26 virus in comparison to the wt SVA SD15-26. Animals from both rSVA- and wt SVA SD15-26-inoculated groups presented characteristic SVA clinical signs (lethargy and lameness) followed by the development of vesicular lesions on the snout and/or feet. The clinical outcome of infection, including disease onset, severity and duration was similar in rSVA- and the wt SVA SD15-26-inoculated animals. All animals inoculated with rSVA or with wt SVA SD15-26 presented a short-term viremia, and animals from both groups shed similar amounts of virus in oral and nasal secretion, and faeces. Our data demonstrates that the rSVA SD5-26 clone is fully virulent and pathogenic in pigs, presenting comparable pathogenesis and infection dynamics to the wt SVA SD15-26 strain. The infectious clone generated here is a useful platform to study virulence determinants of SVA, and to dissect other aspects of SVA infection biology, pathogenesis and persistence.

Funding
This study was supported by the:
  • National Institute of Food and Agriculture (Award 2019-67015-29830)
    • Principle Award Recipient: G. DielDiego
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/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/jgv.0.001643
2021-08-23
2022-08-13
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