1887

Abstract

Type I interferons (IFNs) are a first line of defence against viral infections. Upon infection, a first small wave of early type I IFN, mainly IFN-β and particularly IFN-α, are induced and bind to the type I IFN receptor (IFNAR) to amplify the IFN response. It was shown for several viruses that robust type I IFN responses require this positive feedback loop via the IFNAR. Recently, we showed that infection of IFNAR knockout mice with the Thogoto virus lacking the ML open reading frame (THOV(ML-)) results in the expression of unexpected high amounts of type I IFN. To investigate if IFNAR-independent IFN responses are unique for THOV(ML-), we performed infection experiments with several negative-strand RNA viruses using different routes and dosages for infection. A variety of these viruses induced type I IFN responses IFNAR-independently when using the intraperitoneal (i.p.) route for infection. studies demonstrated that myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) are capable of producing IFNAR-independent IFN-α responses that are dependent on the expression of the adaptor protein mitochondrial antiviral-signalling protein (MAVS) whereas pDC where entirely depending on the IFNAR feedback loop . Thus, depending on dose and route of infection, the IFNAR feedback loop is not strictly necessary for robust type I IFN expression and an IFNAR-independent type I IFN production might be the rule rather than the exception for infections with numerous negative-strand RNA viruses.

Funding
This study was supported by the:
  • Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Award KO 1579/12-1)
    • Principle Award Recipient: GeorgKochs
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2021-07-16
2021-07-27
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