1887

Abstract

Viral infections activate the powerful interferon (IFN) response that induces the expression of several hundred IFN stimulated genes (ISGs). The principal role of this extensive response is to create an unfavourable environment for virus replication and to limit spread; however, untangling the biological consequences of this large response is complicated. In addition to a seemingly high degree of redundancy, several ISGs are usually required in combination to limit infection as individual ISGs often have low to moderate antiviral activity. Furthermore, what ISG or combination of ISGs are antiviral for a given virus is usually not known. For these reasons, and since the function(s) of many ISGs remains unexplored, genome-wide approaches are well placed to investigate what aspects of this response result in an appropriate, virus-specific phenotype. This review discusses the advances screening approaches have provided for the study of host defence mechanisms, including clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9), ISG expression libraries and RNA interference (RNAi) technologies.

Funding
This study was supported by the:
  • Academy of Medical Sciences (Award SFB003/1028)
    • Principle Award Recipient: DavidJ Hughes
  • Wellcome Trust (Award ISSF)
    • Principle Award Recipient: DavidJ Hughes
  • Medical Research Council (Award MR/N001796/1)
    • Principle Award Recipient: FinnGrey
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (Award BBS/E/D/20002172)
    • Principle Award Recipient: FinnGrey
  • Tenovus (Award T20/63)
    • Principle Award Recipient: DavidJ Hughes
  • Academy of Medical Sciences (Award SFB003/1028)
    • Principle Award Recipient: ChloeE. Jones
  • This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. This article was made open access via a Publish and Read agreement between the Microbiology Society and the corresponding author’s institution.
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2021-05-21
2022-01-24
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