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Abstract

A long-standing paradigm in virology was that non-enveloped viruses induce cell lysis to release progeny virions. However, emerging evidence indicates that some non-enveloped viruses exit cells without inducing cell lysis, while others engage both lytic and non-lytic egress mechanisms. Enteric viruses are transmitted via the faecal–oral route and are important causes of a wide range of human infections, both gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal. Virus cellular egress, when fully understood, may be a relevant target for antiviral therapies, which could minimize the public health impact of these infections. In this review, we outline lytic and non-lytic cell egress mechanisms of non-enveloped enteric RNA viruses belonging to five families: , , , and . We discuss factors that contribute to egress mechanisms and the relevance of these mechanisms to virion stability, infectivity and transmission. Since most data were obtained in traditional two-dimensional cell cultures, we will further attempt to place them into the context of polarized cultures and pathogenesis. Throughout the review, we highlight numerous knowledge gaps to stimulate future research into the egress mechanisms of these highly prevalent but largely understudied viruses.

Funding
This study was supported by the:
  • University of Michigan Biological Sciences Scholars Program
    • Principle Award Recipient: ChristianeE. Wobus
  • Michigan Infectious Disease International Scholars fellowship
    • Principle Award Recipient: IreneA. Owusu
  • University of Ghana-Carnegie BaNGA-Africa Project fellowship
    • Principle Award Recipient: IreneA. Owusu
  • DELTAS Africa grant (Award DEL-15-007)
    • Principle Award Recipient: IreneA. Owusu
  • National Institutes of Health (Award AI130328)
    • Principle Award Recipient: ChristianeE. Wobus
  • This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
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2021-02-09
2021-10-25
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