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Abstract

Simian virus 40 (SV40) is a monkey polyomavirus. The capsid structure is icosahedral and comprises VP1 units that measure 45 nm in diameter. Five SV40 VP1 molecules form one pentamer subunit, and a single icosahedral subunit comprises 72 pentamers; a single SV40 VP1 capsid comprises 360 SV40 VP1 molecules. In a previous study, we showed that an influenza A virus matrix protein 1 (M1) CTL epitope inserted within SV40 virus-like particles (VLPs) induced cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) without the need for an adjuvant. Here, to address whether SV40 VLPs induce adaptive immune responses against VLP-incorporated antigens, we prepared SV40 VLPs containing M1 or chicken ovalbumin (OVA). This was done by fusing M1 or OVA with the carboxyl terminus of SV40 VP2 and co-expressing them with SV40 VP1 in insect cells using a baculovirus vector. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) or intranasal administration of SV40 VLPs incorporating M1 induced the production of CTLs specific for the M1 epitope without the requirement for adjuvant. The production of antibodies against SV40 VLPs was also induced by i.p. administration of SV40 VLPs in the absence of adjuvant. Finally, the administration of SV40 VLPs incorporating OVA induced anti-OVA antibodies in the absence of adjuvant; in addition, the level of antibody production was comparable with that after i.p. administration of OVA plus alum adjuvant. These results suggest that the SV40 capsid incorporating foreign antigens can be used as a vaccine platform to induce adaptive immune responses without the need for adjuvant.

Funding
This study was supported by the:
  • Masaaki Kawano , the 44rd Science Research Promotion Fund by the Promotion and Mutual Aid Corporation for Private Schools of Japan
  • Masaaki Kawano , the 43rd Science Research Promotion Fund by the Promotion and Mutual Aid Corporation for Private Schools of Japan
  • Hiroshi Handa , a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S) from the Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science , (Award 17H06112)
  • Sho Matsushita , a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) from Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science , (Award 19K08887)
  • Sho Matsushita , a Grant-in-Aid for Challenging Exploratory Research from the Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science , (Award 15K15375)
  • Masanori Matsui , a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) from the Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science , (Award 18K06631)
  • Masaaki Kawano , a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) from the Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science, , (Award 19K07201)
  • Masaaki Kawano , a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) from Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science , (Award 16K08412)
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/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/jgv.0.001445
2020-06-05
2020-09-22
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