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Abstract

The ancestral equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV1), closely related to human herpes viruses, exploits leukocytes to reach its target organs, accordingly evading the immune surveillance system. Circulating EHV1 strains can be divided into abortigenic/neurovirulent, causing reproductive/neurological disorders. Neurovirulent EHV1 more efficiently recruits monocytic CD172a cells to the upper respiratory tract (URT), while abortigenic EHV1 tempers monocyte migration. Whether similar results could be expected for T lymphocytes is not known. Therefore, we questioned whether differences in T cell recruitment could be associated with variations in cell tropism between both EHV1 phenotypes, and which viral proteins might be involved. The expression of CXCL9 and CXCL10 was evaluated in abortigenic/neurovirulent EHV1-inoculated primary respiratory epithelial cells (ERECs). The bioactivity of chemokines was tested with a functional migration assay. Replication of neurovirulent EHV1 in the URT resulted in an enhanced expression/bioactivity of CXCL9 and CXCL10, compared to abortigenic EHV1. Interestingly, deletion of glycoprotein 2 resulted in an increased recruitment of both monocytic CD172a cells and T lymphocytes to the corresponding EREC supernatants. Our data reveal a novel function of EHV1-gp2, tempering leukocyte migration to the URT, further indicating a sophisticated virus-mediated orchestration of leukocyte recruitment to the URT.

  • This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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2019-11-01
2022-05-25
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