1887

Abstract

The 206 complete genomic sequences of in GenBank (January 2019) were downloaded. Their main open reading frames (ORF)s were compared by phylogenetic and population genetic methods. All fell into the nine previously recognized strain clusters; the PPV-Rec and PPV-T strain ORFs were all recombinants, whereas most of those in the PPV-C, PPV-CR, PPV-CV, PPV-D, PPV-EA, PPV-M and PPV-W strain clusters were not. The strain clusters ranged in size from 2 (PPV-CV and PPV-EA) to 74 (PPV-D). The isolates of eight of the nine strains came solely from Europe and the Levant (with an exception resulting from a quarantine breach), but many PPV-D strain isolates also came from east and south Asia and the Americas. The estimated time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of all 134 non-recombinant ORFs was 820 (865–775) BCE. Most strain populations were only a few decades old, and had small intra-strain, but large inter-strain, differences; strain PPV-W was the oldest. Eurasia is clearly the ‘centre of emergence’ of PPV and the several PPV-D strain populations found elsewhere only show evidence of gene flow with Europe, so have come from separate introductions from Europe. All ORFs and their individual genes show evidence of strong negative selection, except the positively selected gene of the recently migrant populations. The possible ancient origins of PPV are discussed.

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2019-10-01
2019-10-15
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