1887

Abstract

The terms extracellular vesicles, microvesicles, oncosomes, or exosomes are often used interchangeably as descriptors of particles that are released from cells and comprise a lipid membrane that encapsulates nucleic acids and proteins. Although these entities are defined based on a specific size range and/or mechanism of release, the terminology is often ambiguous. Nevertheless, these vesicles are increasingly recognized as important modulators of intercellular communication. The generic characterization of extracellular vesicles could also be used as a descriptor of enveloped viruses, highlighting the fact that extracellular vesicles and enveloped viruses are similar in both composition and function. Their high degree of similarity makes differentiating between vesicles and enveloped viruses in biological specimens particularly difficult. Because viral particles and extracellular vesicles are produced simultaneously in infected cells, it is necessary to separate these populations to understand their independent functions. We summarize current understanding of the similarities and differences of extracellular vesicles, which henceforth we will refer to as exosomes, and the enveloped retrovirus, HIV-1. Here, we focus on the presence of these particles in semen, as these are of particular importance during HIV-1 sexual transmission. While there is overlap in the terminology and physical qualities between HIV-1 virions and exosomes, these two types of intercellular vehicles may differ depending on the bio-fluid source. Recent data have demonstrated that exosomes from human semen serve as regulators of HIV-1 infection that may contribute to the remarkably low risk of infection per sexual exposure.

Keyword(s): exosome , HIV , semen , vesicle and virus
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2019-01-31
2019-08-22
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