1887

Abstract

In 2013, the equine-like G3P[8] DS-1-like rotavirus (RVA) strain emerged worldwide. In 2016, this strain was reported in northern Brazil. The aims of the study were to conduct a retrospective genetic investigation to identify the possible entry of these atypical strains in Brazil and to describe their distribution across a representative area of the country. From 2013 to 2017, a total of 4226 faecal samples were screened for RVA by ELISA, PAGE, RT-PCR and sequencing. G3P[8] represented 20.9 % (167/800) of all RVA-positive samples, further subdivided as equine-like G3P[8], DS-1-like (11.0 %; 88/800) and Wa-like G3P[8] (9.9 %; 79/800). Six equine-like G3P[8] DS-1-like samples were selected for whole-genome investigation, confirming the backbone I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2. During 2013–2014, Wa-like G3P[8] was predominant and no equine-like G3P[8] DS-1-like was detected. Equine-like G3P[8] DS-1-like was first identified in Paraná in March/2015, suggesting that the strain entered Brazil through the Southern region. Equine-like G3P[8] rapidly spread across the area under surveillance and displayed a marked potential to replace Wa-like G3P[8] strains. Brazilian equine-like G3P[8] DS-1-like strains clustered with contemporary equine-like G3P[8] DS-1-like detected worldwide, but exhibited a distinct NSP2 genotype (N2) compared to the previously reported Amazon equine-like G3P[8] DS-1-like strain (N1). Two distinct NSP4 E2 genotype lineages were also identified. Taken together, these data suggest that different variants of equine-like G3P[8] DS-1-like strains might have been introduced into the country at distinct time points, and co-circulated in the period 2015–2017. The global emergence of equine-like G3P[8] DS-1-like strains, predominantly in countries using the Rotarix vaccine, raises the question of whether vaccines may be inducing selective pressures on zoonotic strains.

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2018-11-20
2019-12-11
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