1887

Abstract

All- retinoic acid (ATRA), the most biologically active metabolite of vitamin A, is known to activate p14 expression via promoter hypermethylation to induce p53-dependent apoptosis in human hepatocytes. In this study, we found that the oncogenic hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBx) of HBV, derived from both overexpression and 1.2-mer replicon systems, suppresses ATRA-induced apoptosis in p53-positive human hepatocytes. For this effect, HBx upregulated both protein and enzyme activity levels of DNA methyltransferase 1, 3a and 3b, in the presence of ATRA and thereby inhibited p14 expression via promoter hypermethylation, resulting in inactivation of the p14-mouse double minute 2 pathway and subsequent downregulation of p53 levels. As a result, HBx was able to impair the potential of ATRA to activate apoptosis-related molecules, including Bax, p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis, caspase-9, caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. In conclusion, the present study provides a new oncogenic action mechanism of HBx, namely by suppressing the anticancer potential of ATRA to induce p53-dependent apoptosis in HBV-infected hepatocytes.

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2017-11-01
2020-01-21
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