1887

Abstract

Patients in high-risk groups continue to transmit the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and frequently experience reinfections. Since little is known regarding the immune response to HCV during reinfection, we compared primary and consecutive acute HCV infections in patients with an HIV infection, and focused on the cytokine bridging innate to adaptive immunity. We observed that the serum levels of IL-12p40, MIP-1β, MIG and IP-10 increased during primary acute HCV infection, but not during subsequent secondary acute reinfections. The weaker pro-inflammatory cytokine responses observed during HCV reinfections suggest more limited secondary acute immune responses, which may prevent damage to the infected liver.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/jgv.0.000768
2017-06-08
2019-10-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/98/6/1294.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/jgv.0.000768&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Hullegie SJ, Arends JE, Rijnders BJA, Irving WL, Salmon D et al. Current knowledge and future perspectives on acute hepatitis C infection. Clin Microbiol Infect 2015;21:797.e9–797.e17 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Maan R, van der Meer AJ. Recent advances in managing chronic HCV infection: focus on therapy in patients with severe liver disease. F1000Res 2016;5:367 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Martin NK, Thornton A, Hickman M, Sabin C, Nelson M et al. Can Hepatitis C virus (HCV) direct-acting antiviral treatment as prevention reverse the HCV epidemic among men who have sex with men in the United Kingdom? Epidemiological and modeling insights. Clin Infect Dis 2016;62:1072–1080 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Heydtmann M, Adams DH. Chemokines in the immunopathogenesis of hepatitis C infection. Hepatology 2009;49:676–688 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Claassen MA, Janssen HL, Boonstra A. Role of T cell immunity in hepatitis C virus infections. Curr Opin Virol 2013;3:461–467 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Schulze Zur Wiesch J, Ciuffreda D, Lewis-Ximenez L, Kasprowicz V, Nolan BE et al. Broadly directed virus-specific CD4+ T cell responses are primed during acute hepatitis C infection, but rapidly disappear from human blood with viral persistence. J Exp Med 2012;209:61–75 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Dustin LB, Rice CM. Flying under the radar: the immunobiology of hepatitis C. Annu Rev Immunol 2007;25:71–99 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Sacks-Davis R, Grebely J, Dore GJ, Osburn W, Cox AL et al. Hepatitis C virus reinfection and spontaneous clearance of reinfection–the InC3 study. J Infect Dis 2015;212:1407–1419 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Thomas XV, Grady BP, Van Der Meer JT, Ho CK, Vanhommerig JW et al. Genetic characterization of multiple hepatitis C virus infections following acute infection in HIV-infected men who have sex with men. AIDS 2015;29:2287–2295 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Osburn WO, Fisher BE, Dowd KA, Urban G, Liu L et al. Spontaneous control of primary hepatitis C virus infection and immunity against persistent reinfection. Gastroenterology 2010;138:315–324 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Hajarizadeh B, Lamoury FM, Feld JJ, Amin J, Keoshkerian E et al. Alanine aminotransferase, HCV RNA levels and pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrogenic cytokines/chemokines during acute hepatitis C virus infection. Virol J 2016;13:32 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Chattergoon MA, Levine JS, Latanich R, Osburn WO, Thomas DL et al. High plasma interleukin-18 levels mark the acute phase of hepatitis C virus infection. J Infect Dis 2011;204:1730–1740 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Spaan M, Claassen MA, Hou J, Janssen HL, de Knegt RJ et al. The intrahepatic T cell compartment does not normalize years after therapy-induced hepatitis C virus eradication. J Infect Dis 2015;212:386–390 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Park SH, Veerapu NS, Shin EC, Biancotto A, Mccoy JP et al. Subinfectious hepatitis C virus exposures suppress T cell responses against subsequent acute infection. Nat Med 2013;19:1638–1642 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Belkaid Y. Regulatory T cells and infection: a dangerous necessity. Nat Rev Immunol 2007;7:875–888 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Sighem A, Gras L, Smit C, Stolte I, Reiss P et al. Monitoring Report 2014: Monitoring of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in the Netherlands Amsterdam: 2014
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/jgv.0.000768
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/jgv.0.000768
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplements

Supplementary File 1

PDF

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error