1887

Abstract

The ecosystem is continuously exposed to a wide variety of antimicrobials through waste effluents, agricultural run-offs and animal-related and anthropogenic activities, which contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The contamination of ecosystems with ARGs may create increased opportunities for their transfer to naive microbes and eventually lead to entry into the human food chain. Transduction is a significant mechanism of horizontal gene transfer in natural environments, which has traditionally been underestimated as compared to transformation. We explored the presence of ARGs in environmental bacteriophages in order to recognize their contribution in the spread of ARGs in environmental settings. Bacteriophages were isolated against environmental bacterial isolates, purified and bulk cultured. They were characterized, and detection of ARG and genes including , , , , , and was carried out by PCR. This study revealed the presence of various genes [ (12.7 %), (10.9 %), (10.9 %), (9.1 %), (9.1 %) and (3.6 %)] and in a significantly higher proportion (30.9 %). , , , , , and were not detected in any of the phages. Soil phages were the most versatile in terms of ARG carriage. Also, the relative abundance of differed significantly vis-à-vis source. The phages from organized farms showed varied ARGs as compared to the unorganized sector, although ARG incidences did not differ significantly. The study reflects on the role of phages in dissemination of ARGs in environmental reservoirs, which may provide an early warning system for future clinically relevant resistance mechanisms.

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2016-12-16
2021-10-28
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