1887

Abstract

Outbreaks of porcine circovirus (PCV) type 2 (PCV2)-associated diseases have caused substantial economic losses worldwide in the last 20 years. The PCV capsid protein (Cap) is the sole structural protein and main antigenic determinant of this virus. In this study, not only were phylogenetic trees reconstructed, but variations of surface structure of the PCV capsid were analysed in the course of evolution. Unique surface patterns of the icosahedral fivefold axes of the PCV2 capsid were identified and characterized, all of which were absent in PCV type 1 (PCV1). Icosahedral fivefold axes, decorated with Loops BC, HI and DE, were distinctly different between PCV2 and PCV1. Loops BC, determining the outermost surface around the fivefold axes of PCV capsids, had limited homology between Caps of PCV1 and PCV2. A conserved tyrosine phosphorylation motif in Loop HI that might be recognized by non-receptor tyrosine kinase(s) was present only in PCV2. Particularly, the concurrent presence of 60 pairs of the conserved tyrosine and a canonical PXXP motif on the PCV2 capsid surface could be a mechanism for PXXP motif binding to and activation of an SH3-domain-containing tyrosine kinase in host cells. Additionally, a conserved cysteine in Loop DE of the PCV2 Cap was substituted by an arginine in PCV1, indicating potentially distinct assembly mechanisms of the capsid between PCV1 and PCV2. Therefore, these unique patterns on the PCV2 capsid surface, absent in PCV1 isolates, might be related to cell entry, virus function and pathogenesis.

Keyword(s): Capsid and Surface structure
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2016-12-16
2021-07-23
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