1887

Abstract

In countries from which Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is absent, the causative virus, CCHF virus (CCHFV), is classified as a hazard group 4 agent and handled in containment level (CL)-4. In contrast, most endemic countries out of necessity have had to perform diagnostic tests under biosafety level (BSL)-2 or -3 conditions. In particular, Turkey and several of the Balkan countries have safely processed more than 100 000 samples over many years in BSL-2 laboratories. It is therefore advocated that biosafety requirements for CCHF diagnostic procedures should be revised, to allow the tests required to be performed under enhanced BSL-2 conditions with appropriate biosafety laboratory equipment and personal protective equipment used according to standardized protocols in the countries affected. Downgrading of CCHFV research work from CL-4, BSL-4 to CL-3, BSL-3 should also be considered.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/jgv.0.000610
2016-11-10
2019-10-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/97/11/2799.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/jgv.0.000610&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Akinci E., Öngürü P., Tanrici A., Uyar Y., Eren S., Bodur H..( 2009;). Hemorrhagic fever seroprevalence in healthcare workers. . FLORA the Journal of Infectious and Clinical Microbiology 14: 94–96.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bente D. A., Forrester N. L., Watts D. M., McAuley A. J., Whitehouse C. A., Bray M..( 2013;). Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: history, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical syndrome and genetic diversity. . Antiviral Res 100: 159–189. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bino S..( 2015;). Current situation in CCHFV epidemiology in albania. . In 1st International Conference on Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever. 13–14 March 2015, Thessaloniki:.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Blow J. A., Dohm D. J., Negley D. L., Mores C. N..( 2004;). Virus inactivation by nucleic acid extraction reagents. . J Virol Methods 119: 195–198. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bodur H., Akinci E., Ascioglu S., Öngürü P., Uyar Y..( 2012;). Subclinical infections with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Turkey. . Emerg Infect Dis 18: 640–642. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bulut C., Yilmaz G. R., Karako E., Onde U., Kocak Tufan Z., Demiroz A. P..( 2009;). Risk of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever among healthcare workers. . Clin Microbiol Infect 15: S654. Abstracts of the 19th ECCMID.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Burney M. I., Ghafoor A., Saleen M., Webb P. A., Casals J..( 1980;). Nosocomial outbreak of viral hemorrhagic fever caused by Crimean hemorrhagic-fever Congo virus in Pakistan, January 1976. . Am J Trop Med Hyg 29: 941–947.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Burt F. J., Swanepoel R., Braack L. E..( 1993;). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the detection of antibody to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in the sera of livestock and wild vertebrates. . Epidemiol Infect 111: 547–557. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Burt F. J..( 2015;). Current situation in CCHFV epidemiology in South Africa. . In 1st International Conference on Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever. 13–14 March 2015, Thessaloniki:.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Celikbas A. K., Dokuzoğuz B., Baykam N., Gok S. E., Eroğlu M. N., Midilli K., Zeller H., Ergonul O..( 2014;). Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever among health care workers, Turkey. . Emerg Infect Dis 20: 477–479. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Cevik M. A., Erbay A., Bodur H., Eren S. S., Akinci E., Sener K., Ongürü P., Kubar A.. ( 2007;). Viral load as a predictor of outcome in Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. . Clin Infect Dis 45: e96e100. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Chen Z., Chang G., Zhang W., Chen Y., Wang X., Yang R., Liu C..( 2015;). Mobile laboratory in Sierra Leone during outbreak of Ebola: practices and implications. . Sci China Life Sci 58: 918–921. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Chinikar S., Shayesteh M., Khakifirouz S., Jalali T., Rasi Varaie F. S., Rafigh M., Mostafavi E., Shah-Hosseini N..( 2013;). Nosocomial infection of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in eastern Iran: case report. . Travel Med Infect Dis 11: 252–255. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Chinikar S..( 2015;). Current Situation in CCHFV Epidemiology in Iran. . In 1st International Conference on Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever. 13–14 March 2015, Thessaloniki:.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Christova I..( 2015;). Current situation in CCHFV epidemiology in bulgaria. . In 1st International Conference on Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever. 13–14 March 2015, Thessaloniki:.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Conger N. G., Paolino K. M., Osborn E. C., Rusnak J. M., Gunther S., Pool J., Rollin P. E., Allan P. F., Schmidt-Chanasit J. et al.( 2015;). Health care response to CCHF in US soldier and nosocomial transmission to health care providers, Germany, 2009. . Emerg Infect Dis 21: 23–31.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Duh D., Saksida A., Petrovec M., Ahmeti S., Dedushaj I., Panning M., Drosten C., Avsic-Zupanc T..( 2007;). Viral load as predictor of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever outcome. . Emerg Infect Dis 13: 1769–1772. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Elata A. T., Karsany M. S., Elageb R. M., Hussain M. A., Eltom K. H., Elbashir M. I., Aradaib I. E..( 2011;). A nosocomial transmission of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever to an attending physician in north Kordufan, Sudan. . Virol J 8: 303.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Elevli M., Ozkul A. A., Civilibal M., Midilli K., Gargili A., Duru N. S..( 2010;). A newly identified Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus strain in Turkey. . Int J Infect Dis 14: E213E216. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Ergonul O., Zeller H., Celikbas A., Dokuzoguz B..( 2007;). The lack of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus antibodies in healthcare workers in an endemic region. . Int J Infect Dis 11: 48–51. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Estrada-Peña A., Vatansever Z., Gargili A., Buzgan T..( 2007;). An early warning system for Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever seasonality in Turkey based on remote sensing technology. . Geospat Health 2: 127–135. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Fajs L., Humolli I., Saksida A., Knap N., Jelovšek M., Korva M., Dedushaj I., Avšič-Županc T..( 2014;). Prevalence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in healthy population, livestock and ticks in Kosovo. . PLoS One 9: e110982. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Faye O., Faye O., Soropogui B., Patel P., El Wahed A. A., Loucoubar C., Fall G., Kiory D., Magassouba N. et al.( 2015;). Development and deployment of a rapid recombinase polymerase amplification Ebola virus detection assay in Guinea in 2015. . Euro Surveill 20: 44. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Fernandez-Garcia M. D., Negredo A., Papa A., Donoso-Mantke O., Niedrig M., Zeller H., Tenorio A., Franco L., Enivd M..( 2012;). European survey on laboratory preparedness, response and diagnostic capacity for Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever. . Euro Surveill 2014: 19.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Fisher-Hoch S. P., McCormick J. B., Swanepoel R., Van Middlekoop A., Harvey S., Kustner H. G..( 1992;). Risk of human infections with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in a South African rural community. . Am J Trop Med Hyg 47: 337–345.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Gaidamovich S. Y., Butenko A. M., Leschinskaya H. V..( 2000;). Human laboratory acquired arbo-, arena-, and hantavirus infections. . Appl Biosaf 5: 5–11. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Gozel M. G., Dokmetas I., Oztop A. Y., Engin A., Elaldi N., Bakir M..( 2013;). Recommended precaution procedures protect healthcare workers from Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. . Int J Infect Dis 17: E1046E1050. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Gozel M. G., Bakir M., Oztop A. Y., Engin A., Dokmetas I., Elaldi N..( 2014;). Investigation of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus transmission from patients to relatives: a prospective contact tracing study. . Am J Trop Med Hyg 90: 160–162. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Gunes T., Engin A., Poyraz O., Elaldi N., Kaya S., Dokmetas I., Bakir M., Cinar Z..( 2009;). Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in high-risk population, Turkey. . Emerg Infect Dis 15: 461–464. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Gürbüz Y., Sencan I., Oztürk B., Tütüncü E..( 2009;). A case of nosocomial transmission of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever from patient to patient. . Int J Infect Dis 13: e105e107. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Harxhi A., Pilaca A., Delia Z., Pano K., Rezza G..( 2005;). Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: a case of nosocomial transmission. . Infection 33: 295–296. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Hasan Z., Mahmood F., Jamil B., Atkinson B., Mohammed M., Samreen A., Altaf L., Moatter T., Hewson R..( 2013;). Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever nosocomial infection in a immunosuppressed patient, Pakistan: case report and virological investigation. . J Med Virol 85: 501–504. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Hoogstraal H..( 1979;). The epidemiology of tick-borne Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Asia, Europe, and Africa. . J Med Entomol 15: 307–417. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Humolli I. D. I..( 2015;). Current situation in CCHFV epidemiology in kosovo. . In 1st International Conference on Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever. 13–14 March 2015, Thessaloniki:.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Ince Y., Yasa C., Metin M., Sonmez M., Meram E., Benkli B., Ergonul O..( 2014;). Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever infections reported by ProMED. . Int J Infect Dis 26: 44–46. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Inglis T. J..( 2015;). Adapting the mobile laboratory to the changing needs of the Ebola virus epidemic. . J Med Microbiol 64: 587–591. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Joubert J. R., King J. B., Rossouw D. J., Cooper R..( 1985;). A nosocomial outbreak of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever at Tygerberg Hospital. Part III. Clinical pathology and pathogenesis. . S Afr Med J 68: 722–728.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Karimov S. K., Kiryushchenko T. V., Reformatskaya A. F., Suleimenova G. S..( 1975;). A case of a laboratory infection with the Crimean hemorrhagic fever virus. . Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol 5: 136–137.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Korukluoglu G..( 2015;). Current situation in CCHFV epidemiology in Turkey. . In 1st International Conference on Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever. 13–14 March 2015, Thessaloniki:.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Kunchev A., Kojouharova M..( 2008;). Probable cases of Crimean-Congo-haemorrhagic fever in Bulgaria: a preliminary report. . Euro Surveill 13: 17.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Larichev V..( 2015;). Current situation in CCHFV epidemiology in Russia. . In 1st International Conference on Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever. 13–14 March 2015, Thessaloniki:.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Leblebicioglu H., Sunbul M., Guner R., Bodur H., Bulut C., Duygu F., Elaldi N., Senturk G. C., Ozkurt Z. et al.( 2016;). Healthcare-associated Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Turkey, 2002–2014: a multicentre retrospective cross-sectional study. . Clin Microbiol Infect 22: 387. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Lvov D. K..( 1994;). Arboviral zoonoses of northern Eurasia (Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States). . In Handbook of Zoonoses , pp. 237–260. Edited by Beran G. W.. Boca Rotan, Florida:: CRC Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Mardani M., Rahnavardi M., Rajaeinejad M., Naini K. H., Chinikar S., Pourmalek F., Rostami M., Shahri M. H..( 2007;). Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever among health care workers in Iran: a seroprevalence study in two endemic regions. . Am J Trop Med Hyg 76: 443–445.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Mardani M., Keshtkar-Jahromi M., Ataie B., Adibi P..( 2009;). Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus as a nosocomial pathogen in Iran. . Am J Trop Med Hyg 81: 675–678. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Mertens M. V. Z., Farkas R., Donnet. F., Comtet L., Ben Mechlia M., Tordo N., Groschup H..( 2015;). CCHFV – The first line of protection is understanding. . In 1st International Conference on Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever. 13–14 March 2015, Thessaloniki:.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Midilli K., Gargili A., Ergonul O., Elevli M., Ergin S., Turan N., Sengöz G., Ozturk R., Bakar M..( 2009;). The first clinical case due to AP92 like strain of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and a field survey. . BMC Infect Dis 9: 90. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Mitchell S. W., McCormick J. B..( 1984;). Physicochemical inactivation of Lassa, Ebola, and Marburg viruses and effect on clinical laboratory analyses. . J Clin Microbiol 20: 486–489.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Mourya D. T., Yadav P. D., Shete A., Majumdar T. D., Kanani A., Kapadia D., Chandra V., Kachhiapatel A. J., Joshi P. T. et al.( 2014;). Serosurvey of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in domestic animals, Gujarat, India, 2013. . Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 14: 690–692. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Nabeth P., Cheikh D. O., Lo B., Faye O., Vall I. O. M., Niang M., Wague B., Diop D., Diallo M. et al.( 2004;). Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Mauritania. . Emerg Infect Dis 10: 2143–2149. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Naderi H. R., Sheybani F., Bojdi A., Khosravi N., Mostafavi I..( 2013;). Fatal nosocomial spread of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever with very short incubation period. . Am J Trop Med Hyg 88: 469–471. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Osterholm M. T., Moore K. A., Kelley N. S., Brosseau L. M., Wong G., Murphy F. A., Peters C. J., LeDuc J. W., Russell P. K. et al.( 2015;). Transmission of Ebola viruses: what we know and what we do not know. . MBio 6: e01154. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Ozkaya E., Dincer E., Carhan A., Uyar Y., Ertek M., Whitehouse C. A., Ozkul A..( 2010;). Molecular epidemiology of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Turkey: occurrence of local topotype. . Virus Res 149: 64–70. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Papa A., Bino S., Llagami A., Brahimaj B., Papadimitriou E., Pavlidou V., Velo E., Cahani G., Hajdini M. et al.( 2001;). Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Albania, 2001. . Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2002: 603–606.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Papa A., Bozovi B., Pavlidou V., Papadimitriou E., Pelemis M., Antoniadis A..( 2002;). Genetic detection and isolation of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Kosovo, Yugoslavia. . Emerg Infect Dis 8: 852–854. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Papa A., Christova I., Papadimitriou E., Antoniadis A..( 2004;). Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Bulgaria. . Emerg Infect Dis 10: 1465–1467. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Papa A., Chaligiannis I., Kontana N., Sourba T., Tsioka K., Tsatsaris A., Sotiraki S..( 2014;). A novel AP92-like Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus strain, Greece. . Ticks Tick Borne Dis 5: 590–593. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Papadopoulos O., Koptopoulos G..( 1980;). Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) in Greece: Isolation of the Virus From Rhipicephalus Bursa Ticks and a Preliminary Serological Survey. Edited by Vesenjak-Hirjan J., Porterfield J.. Stuttgart:: Gustav Fisher Verlag;.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. ProMED-mail..( 2009a;). Crimean-Congo hem. fever – Kazakhstan: (SK). . ProMED-mail 2009;15 Jul: 20090715.2529.
  60. ProMED-mail..( 2009b;). Crimean-Congo hem. fever – Tajikistan: (TC). . ProMED-mail 2009;15 Aug: 20090815.2898.
  61. Pshenichnaya N. Y., Nenadskaya S. A..( 2015;). Probable Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus transmission occurred after aerosol-generating medical procedures in Russia: nosocomial cluster. . Int J Infect Dis 33: 120–122. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Saijo M., Tang Q., Shimayi B., Han L., Zhang Y., Asiguma M., Tianshu D., Maeda A., Kurane I., Morikawa S..( 2004;). Possible horizontal transmission of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus from a mother to her child. . Jpn J Infect Dis 57: 55–57.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Samudzi R. R., Leman P. A., Paweska J. T., Swanepoel R., Burt F. J..( 2012;). Bacterial expression of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus nucleoprotein and its evaluation as a diagnostic reagent in an indirect ELISA. . J Virol Methods 179: 70–76. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Service USDoHaHSPH( 2009;). Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, , 5th edn., Washington:: U.S. Government Printing Office;.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Shepherd A. J., Swanepoel R., Shepherd S. P., Leman P. A., Blackburn N. K., Hallett A. F..( 1985;). A nosocomial outbreak of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic-fever at Tygerberg Hospital. 5. Virological and serological observations. . S Afr Med 68: 733–736.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Shepherd A. J., Swanepoel R., Leman P. A., Shepherd S. P..( 1987a;). Field and laboratory investigation of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (Nairovirus, family Bunyaviridae) infection in birds. . Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 81: 1004–1007. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Shepherd A. J., Swanepoel R., Shepherd S. P., McGillivray G. M., Searle L. A..( 1987b;). Antibody to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in wild mammals from southern Africa. . Am J Trop Med Hyg 36: 133–142.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Smither S. J., Weller S. A., Phelps A., Eastaugh L., Ngugi S., O'Brien L. M., Steward J., Lonsdale S. G., Lever M. S..( 2015;). Buffer AVL alone does not inactivate Ebola virus in a representative clinical sample type. . J Clin Microbiol 53: 3148–3154. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Suleiman M. N., Muscat-Baron J. M., Harries J. R., Satti A. G., Platt G. S., Bowen E. T., Simpson D. I..( 1980;). Congo/Crimean haemorrhagic fever in Dubai. An outbreak at the rashid hospital. . Lancet 2: 939–941.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Swanepoel R., Shepherd A. J., Leman P. A., Shepherd S. P., McGillivray G. M., Erasmus M. J., Searle L. A., Gill D. E..( 1987;). Epidemiologic and clinical features of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in southern Africa. . Am J Trop Med Hyg 36: 120–132.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Tarantola A., Ergonul O., Tattevin P..( 2007;). Estimates and Prevention of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Risks for Health Care Workers. Edited by Ergonul O., Whitehouse C.. Dordrecht, Netherlands:: Springer;.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Tezer H., Sucakli I. A., Sayli T. R., Celikel E., Yakut I., Kara A., Tunc B., Ergonul O..( 2010;). Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in children. . J Clin Virol 48: 184–186. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Tezer H., Tavil B., Sucakli I. A., Korukluoğlu G., Uyar Y., Dinçer E., Tunç B., Özkul A..( 2011;). Concurrent Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever and visceral leishmaniasis in a Turkish girl. . Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 11: 743–745. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Tuna N. K. O..( 2015;). Current CCHFV transmission with contaminated mask: case report. . In 1st International Conference on Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever. 13–14 March 2015, Thessaloniki:.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Uyar Y., Carhan A., Albayrak N., Altaş A. B..( 2010;). Evaluation of PCR and ELISA-IgM results in the laboratory diagnosis of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever cases in 2008 in Turkey. . Mikrobiyol Bul 44: 57–64.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Vandewal B. W., Joubert J. R., Vaneeden P. J., King J. B..( 1985;). A nosocomial outbreak of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic-fever at Tygerberg Hospital. 4. Preventive and prophylactic measures. . S Afr Med J 68: 729–732.
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Vaneeden P. J., Joubert J. R., Vandewal B. W., King J. B., Dekock A., Groenewald J. H..( 1985a;). A nosocomial outbreak of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic-fever at Tygerberg Hospital. 1. Clinical features. . S Afr Med J 68: 711–717.
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Vaneeden P. J., Vaneeden S. F., Joubert J. R., King J. B., Vandewal B. W., Michell W. L..( 1985b;). A nosocomial outbreak of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic-fever at Tygerberg Hospital. 2. Management of patients. . S Afr Med J 68: 718–721.
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Vinner L., Fomsgaard A..( 2007;). Inactivation of orthopoxvirus for diagnostic PCR analysis. . J Virol Methods 146: 401–404. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Wehrle P. F., Posch J., Richter K. H., Henderson D. A..( 1970;). An airborne outbreak of smallpox in a German hospital and its significance with respect to other recent outbreaks in Europe. . Bull World Health Organ 43: 669.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Weidmann M..( 2012;). Learning From a History of Laboratory Accidents. Edited by Weidmann M., EIschner M., Silman N., Butaye P.. Weinheim, Germany:: Wiley Blackwell;.
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Williams R. J., Al-Busaidy S., Mehta F. R., Maupin G. O., Wagoner K. D., Al-Awaidy S., Suleiman A. J., Khan A. S., Peters C. J., Ksiazek T. G..( 2000;). Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever: a seroepidemiological and tick survey in the Sultanate of Oman. . Trop Med Int Health 5: 99–106. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Wölfel R., Stoecker K., Fleischmann E., Gramsamer B., Wagner M., Molkenthin P., Di Caro A., Günther S., Ibrahim S. et al.( 2015;). Mobile diagnostics in outbreak response, not only for Ebola: a blueprint for a modular and robust field laboratory. . Euro Surveill 20: 44. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  84. World Health Organization( 2004;). Laboratory Biosafety Manual, , 3rd edn.. ISBN 92 4 154650 6 (LC/NLM classification: QY 25) WHO/CDS/CSR/LYO/2004.11.
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Yadav P. D., Cherian S. S., Zawar D., Kokate P., Gunjikar R., Jadhav S., Mishra A. C., Mourya D. T..( 2013;). Genetic characterization and molecular clock analyses of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus from human and ticks in India, 2010–2011. . Infect Genet Evol 14: 223–231. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/jgv.0.000610
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/jgv.0.000610
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error