1887

Abstract

Specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens were inoculated with the virus seed of an infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV)-attenuated vaccine, and positive reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) antibody levels were subsequently detected in the chicken sera, indicating potential REV contamination of the vaccine. After neutralization with IBDV-positive blood serum, the vaccine was inoculated into DF-1 cells for REV isolation and identification. An REV strain, designated IBD-C1605, was identified using an immunofluorescence assay test. Three pairs of primers were employed for the amplification, cloning and sequencing of three overlapping fragments of the IBD-C1605 genome, and the whole-genome sequence of this isolate was obtained after gene assembly. The genome was 8362 base pairs (nt) in length and its homology with the nucleotide sequences of different reference strains varied between 94.2 and 99.2 %. Isolate IBD-C1605 was inoculated into 1-day-old SPF chickens to observe its pathogenicity. Infection with this organism slowed down the weight gain of SPF chickens and caused atrophy of their immune organs, such as the bursa of Fabricius and thymus gland. Furthermore, the chicken antibody levels decreased significantly after Newcastle disease virus and avian influenza virus subtype H9 vaccine immunization. This is the first report on the isolation and identification of REV from attenuated vaccine virus seeds in China, and is also the first study on the pathogenicity of REV from a contaminated vaccine in China. Our findings contribute towards a better understanding of the detrimental effects of vaccine contamination with exogenous viruses such as REV.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/jgv.0.000588
2016-11-10
2021-07-28
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/97/11/2809.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/jgv.0.000588&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Awad A. M., Abd El-Hamid H. S., Abou Rawash A. A., Ibrahim H. H. 2010; Detection of reticuloendotheliosis virus as a contaminant of fowl pox vaccines. Poult Sci 89:2389–2395 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bagust T. J., Grimes T. M., Dennett D. P. 1979; Infection studies on a Reticuloendotheliosis virus contaminant of a commercial Marek's disease vaccine. Aust Vet J 55:153–157[PubMed] [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Barbosa T., Zavala G., Cheng S. 2008; Molecular characterization of three recombinant isolates of avian leukosis virus obtained from contaminated Marek's disease vaccines. Avian Dis 52:245–252 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bohls R. L., Linares J. A., Gross S. L., Ferro P. J., Silvy N. J., Collisson E. W. 2006; Phylogenetic analyses indicate little variation among Reticuloendotheliosis viruses infecting avian species, including the endangered Attwater's prairie chicken. Virus Res 119:187–194 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Cui Z. Z., Lee L. F., Smith E. J., Witter R. L., Chang T. S. 1988; Monoclonal-antibody-mediated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Reticuloendotheliosis viruses. Avian Dis 32:32–40[PubMed] [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Davidson I., Borenshtain R. 2001; In vivo events of retroviral long terminal repeat integration into Marek's disease virus in commercial poultry: detection of chimeric molecules as a marker. Avian Dis 45:102–121 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Diallo I. S., Mackenzie M. A., Spradbrow P. B., Robinson W. F. 1998; Field isolates of fowlpox virus contaminated with Reticuloendotheliosis virus. Avian Pathol 27:60–66 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Dong X., Ju S., Zhao P., Li Y., Meng F., Sun P., Cui Z. 2014; Synergetic effects of subgroup J avian leukosis virus and Reticuloendotheliosis virus co-infection on growth retardation and immunosuppression in SPF chickens. Vet Microbiol 172:425–431 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Fadly A., Garcia M. C. 2006; Detection of Reticuloendotheliosis virus in live virus vaccines of poultry. Dev Biol 126:301–305
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Fadly A. M., Witter R. L., Smith E. J., Silva R. F., Reed W. M., Hoerr F. J., Putnam M. R. 1996; An outbreak of lymphomas in commercial broiler breeder chickens vaccinated with a fowlpox vaccine contaminated with reticuloendotheliosis virus. Avian Pathol 25:35–47 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Fadly A., Silva R., Hunt H., Pandiri A., Davis C. 2006; Isolation and characterization of an adventitious avian leukosis virus isolated from commercial Marek's disease vaccines. Avian Dis 50:380–385 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Isfort R., Jones D., Kost R., Witter R., Kung H. J. 1992; Retrovirus insertion into herpesvirus in vitro and in vivo . Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89:991–995 [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Li J., Dong X., Yang C., Li Q., Cui Z., Chang S., Zhao P., Yu K., Yang H. 2015; Isolation, identification, and whole-genome sequencing of Reticuloendotheliosis virus from a vaccine against Marek's disease. Poult Sci 94:643–649 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Liu Q., Zhao J., Su J., Pu J., Zhang G., Liu J. 2009; Full genome sequences of two Reticuloendotheliosis viruses contaminating commercial vaccines. Avian Dis 53:341–346 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Luan H., Wang Y., Li Y., Cui Z., Chang S., Zhao P. 2016; Development of a real-time quantitative RT-PCR to detect REV contamination in live vaccine. Poult Sci 95:2023–2029 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Ni N., Cui Z. 2008; [Reticuloendotheliosis virus infection in ducks–an epidemiological studies]. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao 48:514–519[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Qin A., Lee L. F., Fadly A., Hunt H., Cui Z. 2001; Development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to subgroup J avian leukosis virus. Avian Dis 45:938–945 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Wang J., Li Z., Zhao P., Chen H., Cui Z. Z. 2010; Isolation of Reticuloendotheliosis virus from a fowlpox live vaccine and env gene sequence analysis. Chin J Anim Infect Dis 18:35–39
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Wei K., Sun Z., Zhu S., Guo W., Sheng P., Wang Z., Cui Z. Z. 2012; Probable congenital transmission of Reticuloendotheliosis virus caused by vaccination with contaminated vaccines. PLoS One 7:e43422 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Witter R. L., Lee L. F., Bacon L. D., Smith E. J. 1979; Depression of vaccinal immunity to Marek's disease by infection with Reticuloendotheliosis virus. Infect Immun 26:90–98[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Woźniakowski G., Samorek-Salamonowicz E., Kozdruń W. 2011; Molecular characteristics of Polish field strains of Marek's disease Herpesvirus isolated from vaccinated chickens. Acta Vet Scand 53:1 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Woźniakowski G., Mamczur A., Samorek-Salamonowicz E. 2015; Common occurrence of Gallid Herpesvirus-2 with Reticuloendotheliosis virus in chickens caused by possible contamination of vaccine stocks. J Appl Microbiol 118:803–808 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Yuasa N., Taniguchi T., Yoshida I. 1979; Isolation and some characteristics of an agent inducing anemia in chicks. Avian Dis 23:366–385 [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Zavala G., Cheng S. 2006; Detection and characterization of avian leukosis virus in Marek's disease vaccines. Avian Dis 50:209–215 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Zhao P., Ma C., Du Y., Cui Z. 2012; Serological survey of the Reticuloendotheliosis virus infection in China native chicken flocks. Pak Vet J 32:621–623
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Zhao P., Dong X., Cui Z. 2014; Isolation, identification, and gp85 characterization of a subgroup A avian leukosis virus from a contaminated live Newcastle disease virus vaccine, first report in China. Poult Sci 93:2168–2174 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/jgv.0.000588
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/jgv.0.000588
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error