1887

Abstract

Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) associated with coxsackievirus type B3 (CV-B3) of the species is an emerging concern worldwide. Although CV-B3-associated AFP in India has been demonstrated previously, the genomic characterization of these strains is unreported. Here, CV-B3 strains detected on the basis of the partial VP1 gene in 10 AFP cases and five asymptomatic contacts identified from different regions of south-western India during 2009–2010 through the Polio Surveillance Project were considered for complete genome sequencing and characterization. Phylogenetic analysis of complete VP1 gene sequences of global CV-B3 strains classified Indian CV-B3 strains into genogroup GVI, along with strains from Uzbekistan and Bangladesh, and into a new genogroup, GVII. Genomic divergence between genogroups of the study strains was 14.4 % with significantly lower divergence (1.8 %) within GVI ( = 12) than that within GVII (8.5 %) ( = 3). The strains from both AFP cases and asymptomatic contacts, identified mainly in coastal Karnataka and Kerala, belonged to the dominant genogroup GVI, while the GVII strains were recovered from AFP cases in north interior Karnataka. All study strains carried inter-genotypic recombination with the structural region similar to reference CV-B3 strains, and 5′ non-coding regions and non-structural regions closer to other enterovirus B types. Domain II structures of 5′ non-coding regions, described to modulate virus replication, were predicted to have varied structural folds in the two genogroups and were attributed to differing recombination patterns. The results indicate two distinct genomic compositions of CV-B3 strains circulating in India and suggest the need for concurrent analysis of viral and host factors to further understand the varied manifestations of their infections.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/jgv.0.000391
2016-03-01
2019-12-08
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/97/3/694.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/jgv.0.000391&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Casadevall A., Pirofski L. A.. ( 2014;). Microbiology: ditch the term pathogen. Nature 516: 165–166 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Chu P.-Y., Ke G.-M., Chen Y.-S., Lu P.-L., Chen H.-L., Lee M.-S., Chen B.-C., Huang T.-S., Li Y.-C., other authors. ( 2010;). Molecular epidemiology of Coxsackievirus B3. Infect Genet Evol 10: 777–784 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Dhole T. N., Ayyagari A., Chowdhary R., Shakya A. K., Shrivastav N., Datta T., Prakash V.. ( 2009;). Non-polio enteroviruses in acute flaccid paralysis children of India: vital assessment before polio eradication. J Paediatr Child Health 45: 409–413 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Dunn J. J., Bradrick S. S., Chapman N. M., Tracy S. M., Romero J. R.. ( 2003;). The stem loop II within the 5′ nontranslated region of clinical coxsackievirus B3 genomes determines cardiovirulence phenotype in a murine model. J Infect Dis 187: 1552–1561 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Huang Y. P., Lin T. L., Chen Y. J., Hsu C. C., Lin T. H., Wu H. S.. ( 2014;). Phylogenetic analysis and development of an immunofluorescence assay for untypeable strains of coxsackievirus B3. J Microbiol Immunol Infect 47: 447–454 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  6. ICMR ( 2006;). Ethical guidelines for biomedical research on human participants. Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi. Available from: http://icmr.nic.in/ethical_guidelines.pdf (accessed 10 August 2015)..
  7. Kaplan M. H., Klein S. W., McPhee J., Harper R. G.. ( 1983;). Group B coxsackievirus infections in infants younger than three months of age: a serious childhood illness. Rev Infect Dis 5: 1019–1032 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Kishimoto C., Takamatsu N., Ochiai H., Kuribayashi K.. ( 2015;). Nucleotide differences of coxsackievirus B3 and chronic myocarditis. Heart Vessels 30: 126–135 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Kyriakopoulou Z., Pliaka V., Amoutzias G. D., Markoulatos P.. ( 2015;). Recombination among human non-polio enteroviruses: implications for epidemiology and evolution. Virus Genes 50: 177–188 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Laxmivandana R., Yergolkar P., Gopalkrishna V., Chitambar S. D.. ( 2013;). Characterization of the non-polio enterovirus infections associated with acute flaccid paralysis in South-Western India. PLoS One 8: e61650 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Lole K. S., Bollinger R. C., Paranjape R. S., Gadkari D., Kulkarni S. S., Novak N. G., Ingersoll R., Sheppard H. W., Ray S. C.. ( 1999;). Full-length human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genomes from subtype C-infected seroconverters in India, with evidence of intersubtype recombination. J Virol 73: 152–160 [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Lukashev A. N., Lashkevich V. A., Ivanova O. E., Koroleva G. A., Hinkkanen A. E., Ilonen J.. ( 2005;). Recombination in circulating Human enterovirus B: independent evolution of structural and non-structural genome regions. J Gen Virol 86: 3281–3290 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Nasri D., Bouslama L., Pillet S., Bourlet T., Aouni M., Pozzetto B.. ( 2007;). Basic rationale, current methods and future directions for molecular typing of human enterovirus. Expert Rev Mol Diagn 7: 419–434 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Oberste M. S., Maher K., Kilpatrick D. R., Flemister M. R., Brown B. A., Pallansch M. A.. ( 1999;). Typing of human enteroviruses by partial sequencing of VP1. J Clin Microbiol 37: 1288–1293 [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Ortner B., Huang C. W., Schmid D., Mutz I., Wewalka G., Allerberger F., Yang J. Y., Huemer H. P.. ( 2009;). Epidemiology of enterovirus types causing neurological disease in Austria 1999–2007: detection of clusters of echovirus 30 and enterovirus 71 and analysis of prevalent genotypes. J Med Virol 81: 317–324 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Pallansch M., Roos R.. ( 2007;). Enteroviruses: polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses and newer enteroviruses. . In Fields Virology, 5th edn., pp. 840–893. Edited by Knipe D. M., Howley P. M.. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins;.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Prusa J., Missak J., Kittrell J., Evans J. J., Tapprich W. E.. ( 2014;). Major alteration in coxsackievirus B3 genomic RNA structure distinguishes a virulent strain from an avirulent strain. Nucleic Acids Res 42: 10112–10121 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Racaniello V. R.. ( 2007;). Picornaviridae: the viruses and their replication. . In Fields Virology, 5th edn., pp. 796–839. Edited by Knipe D. M., Howley P. M.. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins;.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Rao C. D., Yergolkar P., Shankarappa K. S.. ( 2012;). Antigenic diversity of enteroviruses associated with nonpolio acute flaccid paralysis, India, 2007–2009. Emerg Infect Dis 18: 1833–1840 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Reuter J. S., Mathews D. H.. ( 2010;). RNAstructure: software for RNA secondary structure prediction and analysis. BMC Bioinformatics 11: 129 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Tamura K., Stecher G., Peterson D., Filipski A., Kumar S.. ( 2013;). mega6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0. Mol Biol Evol 30: 2725–2729 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Tao Z., Song Y., Li Y., Liu Y., Jiang P., Lin X., Liu G., Song L., Wang H., Xu A.. ( 2012;). Coxsackievirus B3, Shandong Province, China, 1990–2010. Emerg Infect Dis 18: 1865–1867 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Tracy S., Oberste M. S., Drescher K. M.. (eds) ( 2008;). Group B coxsackieviruses. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology323. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Wang X., Zhu C., Bao W., Zhao K., Niu J., Yu X. F., Zhang W.. ( 2012;). Characterization of full-length enterovirus 71 strains from severe and mild disease patients in northeastern China. PLoS One 7: e32405 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Wong A. H., Lau C. S., Cheng P. K., Ng A. Y., Lim W. W.. ( 2011;). Coxsackievirus B3-associated aseptic meningitis: an emerging infection in Hong Kong. J Med Virol 83: 483–489 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/jgv.0.000391
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/jgv.0.000391
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplements

Supplementary Data



PDF

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error